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1881 Tucson Directory

Directory of the City of Tucson for the Year 1881, containing a Comprehensive List of Inhabitants with their occupations and places of residence; the public officers and their offices; with a review of the past, a glance at the present, and a forecast of the future of this city; together with other useful information concerning the same, compiled and published by G. W. Barter


Tucson in the Past, (a sketch of history) 2
Tucson of the Present, (a plain view) 13
Tucson of the Future, (a horoscope) 14
Incidents since 1871, with lists of officials 15
Duties and Powers of corporate officers 24
Pima County Official List 26
Federal Official List 27
Roster of Officers at Fort Lowell 29
Streets 29
Climate 30
Schools 32
Churches 35
Societies 36
Banks 37
Newspapers 38
Barrio Libre 39
Places of Public Resort 40
Additions to Tucson 41
Industrial Enterprises 43
Table of Distances 46
Direction of the Mails 48
Directory of Names of Inhabitants 49


Pima County Bank, fly-leaf next to cover
Lord & Williams, Bankers 50
SafFord, Hudson & Co., Bankers 52
J. M. Berger, Jeweler 54
L. Zeehendorf & Co., General Merchandise 56
Tully, Ochoa & Co., General Merchandise 58
Wm. B. Hooper & Co., Wholesale Liquors, etc. 60
Wm. C. Davis, Hardware 62
Theo. Welisch & Co 64
I. X. L. Lodging House and Restaurant 64
Lord & Williams Co., General Merchandise 68
L. Meyer & Co., General Merchandise 66
Wm. Zeehendorf 70
Leo Goldschmidt, Furniture 72
Buehman & Co 70
Sweetland & Co., Furniture 74
Wm. A. Scott, Jr., Insurance 76
A. & C. Lumber Co. 78
Pioneer Soda and Ice Works 78
Chas. Detoy, Groceries 80
Colton's Livery Stable 80
A. Goodman, Grocer 82
Tucson Vinegar Works 84
F. H. Burns 84
J. S. Mansfeld, Stationer 86
Marcus Katz, General Merchandise 88
Wetmore & Dean, Assayers 90
Grand Hotel 92
Palace Hotel 90
Russ House 94
Cabinet Saloon 94
Iron Wood Stables 96
Silver Lake, reading notice 40
C. T. Etchells, reading notice 45
Buell's Addition, reading notice 41

TUCSON IN THE PAST. [a historical sketch.]

Tucson is the second oldest town in the United States; Santa Fe, New Mexico, being the first, and St. Augustine, Florida, the third. Tucson was first settled by the Spaniards, in 1560, by the construction of a presidio or fortification, as a strong outpost to protect the industrial operations of the colony at San Xavier.

Arizona came into possession of the United States by the Gadsden Purchase in 1854. The Americans who were here at that time, and who were instrumental in the acquisition, came here under employment of Governor Manuel Gandara, of Sonora, and were engaged in superintending the sheep ranches and in building houses for the Mexicans, who were at work manufacturing blankets by hand. These pioneers were John W. Davis, John Clarke, Dr. Colton, and a few others. The first general immigration of Americans was in 1856-'58, among whom were Major Mark Aldrich, (deceased). Col. James Douglas, (deceased), C. C. Dodson, (now residing at Florence), Sol. Warner, Asa McKenzie, (deceased), Fred. Neville, (deceased), Alfred Fryer, (now of Texas), Richard M. Doss, (deceased), Hon. G. H. Oury, Col. Charles D. Poston, Theodore Morhmar, (deceased), Herman Ehrenberg, (deceased), Thomas Smith, (deceased), Hon. Wm. S. Oury, Hon. Esteven Ochoa, Mercer, Collector of Customs, F. G. Ake, the Pennington family, (all deceased, except a son living in Texas, and a daughter, the wife of W. F. Scott, of Tucson, General Wadsworth, (deceased), Samuel Wise, Peter Kitchen, Bill Kirtland, Tom Page, Dr. C. H. Lord, W. W. Williams, Peter R Brady, (now of Florence), Wm. H. Bailey, Hon. Hiram S. Stevens, Sylvester Mowry, (deceased), Samuel Hughes, A. Lazard, Dr. Hughes, Col. Ed. Cross, (deceased), Col. Solon H. Lathrop, C. H. Meyer, John Wrightman, (deceased), John G. Capron, (deceased), and Joseph Cummings. Many of these have since become distinguished men — in the civil war, in public life, and as wealthy and honored citizens. Many lost their lives in hardy and desperate encounters with the Indians, while rescuing captives or defending their own homes, or the homes of each other. The record of those days of peril cannot be written — they are lost in the oblivion that then surrounded this border land; but we know enough of those times to compare the fortitude and bravery of the settlers with any heroism of any age in the world's history.

In 1858 John Wrightson brought the first printing press to this region, and the Weekly Arizonian was established at Tubac, with Ed. Cross as editor. A duel was fought over this press between Mr. Cross and Sylvester Mowry, after which it became the property of Mr. Mowry and W. S. Oury, who changed it to a Democratic sheet. This press is now in Tombstone, and was, until recently, used in publishing the Nugget, of that city.

W. S. Oury has been four years Sheriff of this county (73 to '77), also a member of the Board of Supervisors, and subsequently Clerk of the same.

Concerning Mr. Oury, and connected with this whole subject, we give the following speech of that gentleman, delivered by him at the railroad celebration, in March, 1880, in response to the toast "The Pioneers:"

"The word pioneer brings to my mind scenes and reminiscences spanning almost half a century, inseparably linked with friendships so dear, companionships so unselfish, and ties so binding, that death alone can sunder them. Born in one of the oldest States of the American Union, reared amid culture and Christianity, with habits and inclinations eminently fitted for social life, at the very dawn of manhood, as if impelled by the invisible hand of destiny, I was drawn by a force absolutely irresistible to the frontier, and the year 1835 found me linked to the destinies of the Lone Star Republic; to her service, in the companionship of such heroes as Crockett, Fannin, Milam, Bowie, Burleson, Johnson, Houston, Travis, and a whole host such as the world has seldom known, the best years of my young life were freely given. For thirteen years on the frontier of Texas, and ending with the termination of the Mexican War, my only friends and associates were frontiersmen, who carried their lives, as it were, in their hands, ever ready to surrender them at their country's call. At the commencement of 1849 the marvelous tales of the golden wealth of California reached the Atlantic coast, and spread with the rapidity of lightning through the whole land, and again the services of the pioneer were needed. How well and truly they performed their duty to the Golden State many who now surround me are living witnesses.

"Again, in 1856, after the purchase of this Territory from Mexico, and when California no longer required their services, a noble band of pioneers, disregarding every obstacle of sand desert, alkali plain, and murderous Apache, marched to Arizona. The best evidence of their duty fully discharged here is the scene which we have all witnessed to-day. Those who are now alive of that brave and generous host may be numbered without exhausting the fingers of both hands, and the history of those who have crossed over the dark river may be summed up in these few sad words: Their bones are scattered like mile-stones along the course of the S. P. R. R., from the western to the eastern boundary of Arizona."

Hon. Hiram S. Stevens was first sent to Congress in 1875, and has served two terms. P. R. Tully, who settled in New Mexico in 1846 and came to Arizona in 1865, has served the public in many useful capacities, and otherwise been distinguished for his charities and conspicuous encouragement of our educational interests.

Dr. Lord has become prominent as a public man, and has given his energies and resources to the creation and care of many important enterprises.

In 1860 a Provisional Government was organized to force Congress to recognize the Gadsden Purchase as a distinct Territory. A convention for this purpose was held in Tucson, composed of delegates from the entire district, which at that time included the Rio Grande country. General Wadsworth was President of that convention, which chose L. A. Owens (now of Texas) as Provisional Governor, Ignacio Orrantia as Lieutenant-Governor, Samuel H. Cousins as Territorial Secretary, and General Wads worth as Commander of the Militia (upon his staff were Colonel W. S. Oury and Colonel John G. Capron. From this Provisional Government a Delegate — Hon. Sylvester Mowry — was sent to Congress to urge the immediate separation of this region from the Territory of New Mexico. In this effort. Mr. Mowry was not successful, on account of the approaching civil war and the extraordinary events then taking place at Washington.

During the war Tucson was occupied alternately by both Confederate and Union forces. In 1862 this Territory, being left exposed by the Federal Government, a company of Confederates (a portion of Colonel Bailey's command on the Rio Grande at Messillo), arrived here under command of Captain Hunter and took possession, holding the place until the arrival of the famous California column, under General Carleton, in the same year. As the California troops approached, Captain Hunter boldly advanced to meet them. The two forces met some forty miles west of Tucson, near a noted landmark of mountains called Pecacho, where a pitched battle took place, resulting in a victory for the Union arms. The Californians made the first attack, and during the engagement lost several men and one commissioned officer. The Confederates retreated, and withdrew to the Rio Grande, and from thence the entire Confederate force under General Sibley retreated into Texas. Colonel James H. Toole, Major S. K De Long and Captain G. C. Smith, now leading citizens here, were officers in the California column at the time of this engagement.

In 1863 the Territory was first organized, the President appointing John N. Goodwin as Governor; R. C. McCormick, Territorial Secretary; Turner, Chief Justice; Allyn and Howell, Associate Justices. During 1863 and since that time, the Zechendorfs, W. C. Davis, Joe Goldtree, Judge Osborn Alex. Levin, E. N. Fish, I. S. Fried, Albert Steinfeld, John S. Carr, L. Meyer «fe Brother, J. J. Hamberg, R. N. Leatherwood. J. M. Berger, J. N. Mason, Hereford & Zabriskie, Judge J. S. Wood, Leo Goldschmidt, Wm. A. Scott, Jr., the Jacobs family, J. S. Mansfeld, E. F. Colton, M. G. Samaniego, Chas. A. Shibell, Chas. R. Drake, C. T. Etchells, Theo. Welisch, Maish & Driscoll, the Drachman Brothers, the Kaufman Brothers, George Rayfield, O. Buckalew, the Charouleau Brothers, Marcus Katz, Handy & Holbrook, Farley & Pomroy, "Pant" (Sabbe Pant ?), John Wasson, J. M. Soto, Alexander Campbell, Marcus Foster, Colonel F. Stanford, Tom Gates, John Haynes, Colonel T. J. Jeffords, Benj. Morgan, L. C. Hughes, Chas. A. Paige, Geo. T. Martin, P. Downey, J. H. Hewitt, General E. W. Rice, Geo. A. Clum, T. L. Stiles, F. P. Thompson, W. Earll, R. C. Brown, and a host of others who are now our leading citizens, came and cast their destinies with the destiny of Tucson.

All those of ancient or recent times who have shared in the administration of local affairs, have conducted them in the most economical and creditable manner. They have builded a city without entailing burdensome debts, and generously given their labors for the benefit of those who are to come hereafter to make their homes with us.

TUCSON OF THE PRESENT. [Page 13] [a plain view.]

The city has an estimated population of 10,000 souls, mostly Mexican and English speaking people. Besides this large number, there is a constant flow of floating population, who come and go hence, and another class of semi-citizens, who come in from the surrounding mountains periodically, and make this place their point of connection with civilization for a few weeks at a time. The population maintains as good order as in any other city of equal size in the United States, and our leading citizens take a justifiable pride in the advancement of every legitimate public interest.

The stranger who arrives and takes his week of observation on the streets is apt to remain in ignorance of the fact that Tucson has a well-defined stratification of good society. Therein he would be in error, for it is well known that ladies and gentlemen reside here, who were the recognized ornaments and leaders in the best society of their former places of residence; and with this class, as a natural consequence, all the usages of culture and refinement are in common practice. In matters of dress, the formalities of calls, the selections for balls and private parties, in general social intercourse, in the quality of manners and respectability, the best society of no eastern city can excel the better class of society in Tucson. The churches and societies add greatly to the moral tone of the city.

To-day real estate is upon the verge of doubling in value. New and costly residences have recently been erected, and others are projected. New structures are being built in all parts of the city, and in the very face of a doubling population, the induction of water and gas, the construction of street railroads, and the demand for ground for the construction of tenements, we confidently assert that the present low prices of city lots cannot long continue.

TUCSON IN THE FUTURE. [Page 14] [a horoscope.]

Since the beginning of authentic history, we know that the impulse to move westward has caused the human family to constantly migrate towards the setting sun. Westward, for 400 years has the population moved across the continent. In the thoughts and plans of the inhabitants of Europe is yet the paramount idea of migrating hither. In the calculations and combinations for the future that enter into the buoyant hopes of the young men living eastward of the Mississippi, even to this day, is the overruling one of a movement, at some time in their lives to the historic, the adventurous frontier. The great wave of this immigration will ultimately sweep over Arizona, New Mexico and Sonora — the new West — the only West that is now left for mankind. Not only will it come by this inborn impulse from the East, but it will sweep hither from the Pacific Coast, thus concentrating the entire energies of the East and the West in building up a large city here, at the natural metropolis of all this region, and developing the mining industry, now in its infancy. Tucson is the only city of importance between Los Angeles, in California, and San Antonio, in Texas. She occupies a geographical situation which will draw to her all that can be drawn from this vast area, to found a substantial American city.

The men who have cast their destinies with Tucson, who have watched and assisted her various stages of advancement, and who have grown wealthy here, are still the guardians of her destiny, and will use their means and abilities to see that she does become as great, as prosperous and as beautiful as both natural and human resources can make her.

The merchant kings of Tucson whose separate merchandise palaces cover large tracts of ground, by the growth of their trade from lesser beginnings, know that Tucson has a solid bottom and reliable indications of a great future.

In a little time the introduction of abundant water will make this city cheerful with verdure, and blossom as the rose. Then will the broad streets of the future commence to be inhabited and the new city of Tucson will become a fixed fact. At the next session of the Legislature, the Capital may at last be located where it properly belongs, here in the centre of population. The time is coming when we may ride along in street cars past elegant homes, from the S. P. R. R. depot to Silver Lake. In time, by the more economical distribution of water, a large area of land will be brought under cultivation in the Santa Cruz valley, and by means of wells and reservoirs on the mesa lands, much will be added to the agricultural land in this vicinity.

Another railroad southward may ere long bring us into quicker communication with the frontier of Mexico, and railroad communication will soon be open to the valley of the lower Mississippi, from whence we will be able to derive new commercial resources. Tucson has vitality derived from its substantial growth in the past; it has a solid foundation from its resources of trade, mining and stock raising, all in activity and rapid advancement; and it has the very brightest hopes dawning in the prospects for the immediate future.

Together with Lists of Town and City Officials since 1873.

Hon. S. R. De Long was Mayor of the village in 1871, and Samuel Hughes, W. W. Williams and W. S. Oury, Councilmen. Hon. Hiram S. Stevens was Treasurer, and W. J. Osborn, Recorder and Assessor. The same gentlemen served during 1872, with E. N. Fish as Treasurer.

During 1871 inquiry was made by the Council concerning a Congressional donation in 1864 of land for a town site, and it was discovered that although such a donation had been made, it had lapsed, because Tucson had neglected to make it available.

During 1872 the sum of $1,600 was paid the Government for U. S. patent to two sections of land for the town site of Tucson, and in August of this year, the village authorities commenced to issue deeds to purchasers of lots, and to donate land for school and church purposes.


Councilmen: W. W. Williams, E. T. Etchells, Samuel Hughes, Wm. S. Oury
Marshal: F. M. Hodges, resigned; J. S. Thayer, resigned; Francisco Esparzo
Treasurer: E. N. Fish
Recorder: W. J. Osborn
Assessor: G. F. Foster
Poundmaster: M. G. Gay


Councilmen: Samuel Hughes, R. N. Leatherwood, P. Drachman, W. W. Williams
Marshal: F. Esparzo
Treasurer: E. N. Fish
Recorder: W. J. Osborn
Assessor: W. Morgan
Poundmaster: J. Miller

VILLAGE ELECTION, 1875. [Page 17]

Councilmen: P. Drachman, C. T. Etchells, Samuel Hughes, R. N. Leatherwood
Marshal: David Davis, resigned; Francisco Esperzo
Treasurer: E. N. Fish
Recorder: Charles H. Meyer
Assessor: G. F. Foster
Poundmaster: C. Rodrigues

The salary of Marshal was fixed at $20 per month, but increased in special seasons.

The old cemetery was abandoned as a place of burial, and ten lots were donated by the village for a new one. Lots also granted for a Catholic cemetery.

Surgeons and doctors were not allowed to practice without recording their diplomas or certificates in accordance with a law of the Territory.

A wagon, harness and two good mules were purchased for town use.

Artesian wells projected and contract awarded to McCoy & Goldberg to supply water to Tucson for 18 years. [This franchise is now void.]

Butchering required to be done outside the village limits.

Ordinances enforced with regard to fast driving, public cleanliness and gambling by minors.

All dogs found in the streets after 12 M. September 10th, ordered to be shot, on account of a case of hydrophobia.

Village lots offered free to all persons improving to the extent of $100, and residing on the same six months.

Hospitalities of the village tendered to Gen. A. V. Kautz and staff.

The two good mules, wagon and harness sold by reason of being too expensive to operate.


Mayor: CHAKLES H. MEYER, Declined to qualify and was elected Recorder; J. B. ALLEN
Councilmen: Samuel Hughes, R. N. Leatherwood, C. T. Etchells, P. Drachman
Marshal: A. G. Buttner
Treasurer: E. N. Fish
Recorder: Charles H. Meyer
Assessor: G. F. Foster
Poundmaster: Juan Bouquez

Petition presented to the Council asking that an election be held to take the sense of the community as to whether the village should disincorporate and merge in the county organization. Such election being held the people decided in the negative.

Dr. J. C. Handy was employed to vaccinate all indigents in the village.

Board of Trade permitted to erect a powder magazine at a safe distance from town.

Hospitalities of the village tendered to the Mexican General, Mariscal, and staff.

Leave of absence granted to Recorder Meyer, and S. W. Carpenter appointed Deputy pro tem.

Ground for booths, etc., for feast of San Augustine, rented for $277 for the season.

Board of Health established and Drs. J. C. Handy, P. R. Tully and Wm. Zechendorf appointed as such Board.

The planting of trees along the streets was officially encouraged.

General Phineas Banning conferred with the Mayor and Common Council concerning the right of way and depot grounds for the Southern Pacific Railroad; and thereafter all necessary grounds were purchased and deeded accordingly.

VILLAGE ELECTION, 1877. [Page 19]

Mayor: J. B. ALLEN
Councilmen: P. Drachman, resigned Aug. 29; J. S. Mansfeld, resigned Aug. 29; R. N. Leatherwood, Samuel Hughes , resigned.
Marshal f, A. G. Buttner, resigned; Isaac E. Brokaw, resigned; A. G. Buttner
Treasurer: E. N. Fish
Recorder: Charles H. Meyer, resigned; Joseph Neugass
Assessor and Tax Collector: G. F. Foster, resigned; C. A. Shibell
Board of Health: P. R. Tully, Chairman; Dr. J. C. Handy, George Cooler, D. Valasco, B. Garcia
Street Commissioner: C. E. Jones
Poundmaster: M. G. Gay

A new Charter for incorporating as a city was drawn, and granted by the Legislature; and, with the Council meeting of February 7, 1877, Tucson ceased to be a village, and thereafter assumed the dignity and responsibilities


Farley & Pomroy, employed as City Attorneys, Charles H. Meyer, resigns the office of Recorder, February 12th, and receives the thanks of the Council for faithful and efficient services.

Booth privileges for feast of San Augustine, sold by city for $371.


Councilmen: R. N. Leatherwood; Paul Abadie; B. M. Jacobs, resigned Aug. 15; E. Ochoa, resigned Aug. 15; C. D. Drake; F. H. Drachman
Recorder and Police Justice: W. S. Edwards
Treasurer: W. W. Williams
Marshal and Chief of Police: A. G. Buttner
Assessor and Tax Collector: A. Brighter
City Attorney: Benjamin Morgan
Poundmaster: Henry Smith

Total debt of the city, January 8th, $1,188.


Councilmen: Charles R Drake, Alex. Levin, B. N. Leatherwood, P. Abadie.
Recorder and Police Justice: W. J. Osborn
Treasurer: W. W. Williams
Marshal and Chief of Police: Isaac E. Brokaw
Assessor and Tax Collector: H. Ott
Policemen: A. G. Buttner, J. H. Martin, John Moore, G. B. Shepard.
Poundmaster: Henry Smith

Franchise granted to T. J. Jeffards and associates for supplying the city with water from artesian wells. Said franchise to extend conditionally for twenty-five years.

On May 6th, Mayor Toole tendered his resignation, which was unanimously not accepted by the Council.

Railroad matters progress with activity, and at a special election held June 21st, the citizens voted unanimously that bonds to the amount of $10,000 should be issued to pay for land, not owned by the city, for the Southern Pacific Railroad depot, grounds, right of way, etc., and said bonds to that amount were thereafter issued.

Rights and privileges for Feast of San Augustine, sold by the city for $600.


Councilmen: M. G. Samaniego, C. T. Etchells, Alex Levin, C. R Drake
Recorder and Police Justice: Charles H. Meyer
Treasurer: P. R. Tully
Marshal and Chief of Police: I. E. Brokaw
Assessor: H. Ott
City Attorney: Benjamin Morgan
Surveyor: G. E. Roskrunge
Policemen: Geo. B. Shepard, J. H. Martin, John Moore, A. G. Buttner
Poundmaster: Henry Smith

Ex-Mayor Toole is tendered the thanks of the Common Council, for his efficient services during the preceding year.

On March 1st, a franchise for a street railroad was granted exclusive on certain streets, for fifteen years, to H. C. Wiley and associates — they to construct and commence operating such road within two years.

March 10th, celebration of the connection of railroad with Tucson.

March 10. Celebration of the connection of S. P. R. R. with Tucson, by a banquet and the grandest display ever witnessed in the city up to that time. On the Reception Committee were R. N. Leatherwood, Chairman; Gen'l E. A. Carr, Judge C. G. W. French, P. R. Tully, Ben. Morgan, Tom. Gates, W. S. Oury, J. Wasson, Sol. Warner, L. C. Hughes, L. M. Jacobs, Wm. Zechendorf, and M. W. Stewart. Several of the above named were on other committees, associated with C. T. Etchells, S. Hughes, M. Katz, C. Hudson, W. C. Davis, Lieut. Perrine, D. Velasco, L. Carrillo, I. S. Fried, P. Drachman, Pedro Charouleau, J. Quinlin, C. W. Clarke, 0. Buckalew, A. Levin, J. S. Carr, S. H. Drachman, A. D. Otis, H. Buehman, R. C. Brown, B. H. Hereford, S. W. Carpenter, W. S. Edwards, W. G. Corbett, C. R. Drake, W. W. Williams, E. Ochoa, J. S. Mansfeld, B. M. Jacobs, F. Stanford, Capt. G. C. Smith, F. Maish, A. Steinfeld, J. C. Handy, P. Abadie, J. Neugass, M. G. Samaniego, J. P. Clum, J. S. Wood, C. A. Shibell, C. I. Velasco, Maj. McCreary, Judge J. Haynes, J. B. Allen, H. Farley, J. A. Zabriskie, C. H. Lord, Lieut. Kerr, Col. Poston, C. H. Meyer, J. Goldtree, Theo. Welisch, T. L. Stiles, H. Buehman, T. Driscoll, W. P. Nye, H. C. Walker, E. N. Fish, E. Hudson, J. S. Vosberg, G. J. Hucke, T. J. Jeffords, E. B. Pomroy, A. G. Ryan, H. Hewitt, G. L. Field, F. Colton, and J. Carroll. Eloquent and able speeches were made by Hon. W. S. Oury, Hon. Estevan Ochoa, Hon. R. N. Leatherwood, Judge French, Charles Crocker, James Gamble, General Carr, Hugh Farley, F. H. Goodwin, Manuel Prieto, Carlos I. Velasco, F. M. Pixley, Thomas Fitch, Major Ben. C. Truman, and R. M. Squire. General good feeling prevailed, and the celebration was a success.

March 22. Franchise for gas works and lighting of Tucson with gas granted exclusively to W. W. Williams, Claude Anderson, I. S. Fried and associates, for a period of twenty-five years; works to be constructed and gas introduced within two years.

Rate of taxation, one-half per cent, for the General Fund and one-fourth of one per cent, for Railroad Bonds Fund.

Feast of San Augustine hereafter to be held outside the city.

President Hayes arrived, and was entertained. The following named citizens acted on the various committees: Mayor Leatherwood, Dr. Lord, Mr. Tully, Gen'l Carr, Gen'l Wilcox, and Messrs. Toole, Stevens, Jacobs, Ochoa, Williams, Fields, Colton and Carroll. The Presidential party and invited guests dined at the residence of Lord & Williams.

Railroad Bonds Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, amounting to two thousand dollars, were paid up and cancelled.

Proposals asked for doing the work of numbering the houses, and placing names of streets on the corners thereof.

CITY OFFICIALS, 1881. [Page 23]

Councilmen: A. Levin, Charles T. Etchells, M. G. Samaniego, A. Steinfeld
Recorder and Police Justice, etc: Charles H. Meyer
Treasurer: P. R. Tully
Marshal, Chief of Police, etc: A. G. Buttner
Assessor and Tax Collector: H. Ott
City Attorney: Benjamin Morgan
Board of Health: Mayor John S. Carr, Chairman, Councilman A. Steinfeld, Councilman M. G, Samaniego, Chas. H. Meyer, Secretary.
Health Officer and City Physician: J. C. Handy, M. D.
City Surveyor: G. A. Roskrunge
Policemen: Geo. B. Shephard, John Moore, Francisco Esparzo, Michael Mahoney, J. H. Martin, Thomas Newcome, Thomas O'Rourke (resigned), George B. Shearer.
Poundmaster: Jesus Molino

EVENTS IN 1881. [Page 23]

The thanks of the Council were voted to Mayor Leatherwood for his uniform courtesy and efficiency during the preceding term.

The Legislature was induced to memorialize Congress to establish a U. S. Branch Mint and Assay Office at Tucson.

The City Water Works are in process of construction.

A general revival of local interest has taken place under the administration of Mayor Carr and the present Council. Attention is being directed to street improvements, the more regular construction of sidewalks, and the establishing of street grades. Telephones have been introduced into the city, and the City Ordinances have been published in pamphlet form, in both English and Spanish. Good order is maintained in the city, and the Ordinances energetically enforced.

By the terms of the Water Company's franchise, the works must be completed and water introduced into the city by the 15th of December, 1881.

By the terms of the Street Railroad franchise, a line of road must be in operation on or before the 16th of March, 1882.

By the terms of the franchise for Gas Works, gas must be introduced into the city on or before the 22d of March, 1882.

It is expected that the 1/4 per cent, tax-levy for balance ($8,000) Railroad bonds will be totally extinguished this year.

The city property consists of some forty-five blocks and parcels of unsold land, valued at $25,000, and it is contemplated ere long to build a commodious City Hall, wherein all business of the municipality will be transacted with facility.


Following is a synopsis of the character of the various municipal offices and the names of officers for the current year, 1881:

Officers are elected for one year (except two of the Councilmen), the elections occurring on the first Tuesday in each January.

The Mayor serves without fee or salary. He presides at the meetings of and votes with the Common Council, signs municipal licenses and all warrants drawn upon the Treasurer, makes quarterly communications to the Council concerning the condition of the city, assists in selecting such officers as serve by appointment, exercises a supervision over the subordinate officers, and examines into all complaints made by citizens. He is ex-officio Chairman of the Board of Health.

The Common Council consists of four members, elected at large, who serve without compensation. Two are elected annually, and all serve for a term of two years. Any three members serve as Judges and Inspectors of Municipal Elections. They are invested with power to purchase, to build, to pay and contract debts, etc. Regular meetings are held in the Police Court-room on the first Monday in each month, and adjourned meetings intermediately, as occasion may require. They also sit annually as a Board of Equalization.

The Recorder is elected the same as other city officials. He is ex-officio Police Justice. He keeps the corporate seal and all papers belonging to the city. His salary in both capacities amounts to $125 per month. As Recorder, he files a bond in the sum of $1,000. He draws and countersigns warrants on the Treasurer, signed by the Mayor, officiates as clerk of the Council, Clerk of Municipal Elections, and as Secretary of the Board of Health. As Police Justice, he has the jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace within the city, concerning offences against the by-laws, ordinances and regulations of the Council.

The City Treasurer serves without compensation. His bonds are regulated by the Mayor and Council, according to the amount of each annual tax levy. He makes an annual settlement with the Council.

The City Marshal is also Chief of Police, and ex officio License Collector and Street Superintendent. His salary is $130 per month (the $30 being for keeping of a horse). His perquisite as License Collector is fifty cents for each license collected. He recommends his subordinates for appointment or dismissal subject to the approval of the Mayor and Common Council. As Street Commissioner, he sees to repairs of bridges, curbing, etc., and sees to the enforcement of the city ordinances concerning streets. Bonds $1,000.

The Assessor, who is also Tax Collector, receives compensation as the Mayor and Council may determine, according to the amount of work performed, and also certain stipulated fees. He is usually employed two or three months annually. Bonds $5,000.

The City Attorney is appointed by the Mayor and Common Council. Salary $300 per annum.

The Health Officer, who is also City Physician, is appointed by the Board of Health, subject to ratification by the Mayor and Council, and receives a salary of $75 per month. As City Physician, he is appointed by the Mayor and Common Council. He is authorized to see that the city is kept in a cleanly and healthful condition, and direct the police to enforce his orders.

The Board of Health consists of the Mayor and two members of the Council, whom he designates.

The City Surveyor is appointed by the Mayor and Common Council, and receives a salary of SI 50 per annum.

The Charter provides for the appointment of a Street Commissioner, but as the Mayor and Council have not in recent times appointed one, all the functions of that office devolve upon the Marshal, by consent.

The Poundmaster receives certain fees, and gives a bond of $500.

There are seven regular Police-officers, five of whom receive Si 00 per month, and two $75 per month each. They wear badges, but are not uniformed. Certain special officers are clothed with authority, and receive fees for making arrests.

PIMA COUNTY OFFICERS, 1881-82. [Page 26]
("Elected in November, 1880, to serve two years).

PROBATE COURT: Hon. John. S. Wood, Judge. (The Probate Judge is ex-officio County School Superintendent.) M. Gervais, Probate Clerk.

SHERIFFS OFFICE: R. H. Paul, Sheriff; J. J. Coleman, Under-Sheriff: John Evarts and A. Caballero, Deputies; Isaac E. Brokaw, Jailor; James Hersey, Assistant Jailor; M. L. Brown and John Davis, Jail Guards. The Sheriff is ex-officio

COUNTY ASSESSOR: The following named are his Deputy Assessors: W. B. Hopkins, M. S. Snyder and M. McKenna.

COUNTY RECORDER'S OFFICE: Charles R. Drake, Recorder; Anthony Coenen, Deputy Recorder; R. S. Miller, Deputy Recorder.

TREASURER'S OFFICE: Hon. R. N. Leatherwood, Treasurer; Andrew Cronley, Deputy Treasurer.



BOARD OF SUPERVISORS: Wm. C. Davis, Chairman; B. M. Jacobs and Michael Fagan. Clerk of the Board, E. W. Risley.

BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES: Samuel Hughes, Chairman; R. C. Brown and F. P. Thompson.

FEDERAL OFFICIAL LIST, 1881, Of Officers Resident in Tucson.

GOVERNOR: Hon. John C. Fremont, residence. No. 245 Main Street South. (Governor Fremont resides one-half the year in Tucson, the other half at Prescott.)

THE JUDICIARY: Hon. W. H Stilwell, Associate Justice Supreme Court, presiding over the U. S. and Territorial District Courts for the First Judicial District. Residence, No. 135 Alameda Street.

Hon. Everett B. Pomroy, U. S. District Attorney. Office, corner Pennington and Meyer Streets; residence, No. 431 Main Street North.

George A. Glum, Clerk U. S. and Territorial District Court, First Judicial District, and also Clerk of District Court of Pima Gounty. Residence, 135 Alameda Street.

T. L. Stiles, U. S. Court Gommissioner and District Court Commissioner of Pima County. Office, 216 Pennington Street; residence, 611 Pennington Street.

J. W. Evans, Deputy U. S. Marshal.

U. S. SURVEYOR-GENERAL'S OFFICE. No. 301 Main Street South.

Hon. John Wasson, U. S. Surveyor-General; H. M. De Hart,
Ghief Glerk; A. W. Pattiani, Draftsman Public Surveys;
Paul Riecker, Mining Draftsman; John L. Harris, Mining
Glerk; Rufus G. Hopkins, Translator and Spanish Glerk.

U. S. LAND OFFICE. Gila Land District.
H. Cousins; Register; G. E. Daily, Receiver.

U. S. INTERNAL REVENUE OFFIGE. No. 204 Convent Street.

Thomas Cordis, U. S. Internal Revenue Collector; Geo. W. Mauk, Deputy Collector; R. J. Butler, Clerk.

U. S. CUSTOM HOUSE. No. 302 Main Street South.
W. F. Scott, Deputy Collector; Andrew J. Keene, Inspector.

U. S. TREASURY DEPOSITORY. Congress Street, bet. Main and Meyer Street South.

C. H. Lord, U. S. Depositary; H. B. Cullom, Gashier.

U. S. POST OFFIGE. Congress Street, bet. Main and Meyer Street South.

C. H. Lord, Postmaster; W. J. Corbett, Assistant Postmaster; W. L. Brooks, Clerk.

U. S. SIGNAL SERVICE. Office, No. 13 Court Square.

J. L. Whiteside, Observer; E. R. Demain, Assistant Observer.


Fort Lowell is situated seven miles north-east of Tucson. Its garrison is ordinarily composed of one company of cavalry and officers of the post. On the ninth of June, 1881, the roster of officers was as follows:

Col. E. a. Carr, 6th Cavalry, absent on detached service, commanding Fort Apache, Arizona.

Capt. W. A. Rafferty, 6th Cavalry, commanding the post and Co. M.

Capt. G. C. Smith, A. Q. M., Post Q. M. and Disbursing Officer for South-eastern Arizona.

1st Lieut. I. B. Kerr, Regimental Adjutant, 6th Cavalry, and Post Adjutant.

1st Lieut. Wm. H. Carter, Regimental Quartermaster, 6th Cavalry, absent on detached service at Fort Apache.

2d Lieut. J. Y. F. Blake, 6th Cavalry, on duty with Co. M., also Post Ordnance Officer.

1st Lieut. H. P. Perrine, Co. M., 6th Cavalry, on detached service at Camp Thomas, commanding Co. B., 6th Cavalry.

Levi Force, A. A. Surgeon, Post Surgeon.

STREETS. [Page 29]

The streets in that portion of the city inhabited before the city site was secured by U. S. Patent, are mostly narrow, like those of Mexican cities; but all the larger portion of the city, laid off since then, has broad streets and avenues. No regular system of street grades has, as yet, been established; hence persons investing their money in buildings know not but that at some future time they will be compelled to raise or lower the basis of their domiciles, or otherwise have awkward sidewalk facilities. The subject of regulating this matter is before the present Common Council, and will probably be disposed of for the future good of the future city. Main, Pennington, Congress, Meyer streets, and Stone, Toole, and Osborne avenues, are among the most spacious and promising thoroughfares at the present time. All the streets and avenues have their names conspicuously placed on their corners; and, as the houses are numbered, and a directory has been published, there is now no difficulty whatever in finding one's way to any place or person desired. Streets running north and south are numbered in both directions from their crossings at Pennington street; and all other streets are numbered eastward from Main street and its extension into Osborne avenue.

The principal streets immediately south of Pennington, and running parallel therewith, are Congress, Mesilla, Camp, Jackson, Ochoa, McCormick, Cushing, Simpson, and Kennedy. Those immediately north of Pennington, and running parallel therewith, are Alameda, Washington, Council, and Franklin Streets east of Main street and Osborne avenue, running parallel therewith, are Meyer, Court, Church, Convent, Stone avenue, Sixth avenue, and Toole avenue. Church Plaza is the open space of ground in front of St. Augustine's Roman Catholic Church. Court Square is the open space surrounding the Presbyterian Church, north of Pennington street, and in front of the old Court-house buildings. Military Plaza occupies several blocks, and is thus called by reason of its occupation by the U. S. troops previous to the establishing of Fort Lowell.

CLIMATE. [Page 30]

The climate here is agreeable. The heat in midsummer is no greater than in the Sacramento Valley, or its corresponding localities in California, nor as oppressive as it is in Eastern cities. The highest range of the thermometer, as recorded at the U. S. Signal Office in Tucson, is 110 degrees. This range was reached one day in 1880, being on the 30th of June. The lowest range in 1880 was 14 degrees, on January 30. On the 28th of January, 1880, snow fell, being the first of importance in sixteen years. Snow to a corresponding depth also fell in March, 1881, and on the 2d of June following the thermometer reached 110 degrees. This is certainly not a bad showing, when compared to the region in Africa between Fezzan and the southern side of Sahara, where the thermometer is commonly 132 degrees in the shade, and 156 in the sun. As Tucson is 2,500 feet above the sea level, and in a dry and light atmosphere, the heat has less effect on the human system than the same degree would have in a lower altitude with a denser atmosphere. At this altitude there is also an almost constant movement of the air, which make the hot days tolerable and the nights delightful.

The rainy season begins about the first of July, and continues three months to October, keeping the atmosphere in a cool condition. During the hot season a refreshing mountain breeze rises about 11 o'clock A. M. each day, and continues frequently until the grateful shades of night relieve us of the heat's severity.

The record of temperature as kept at the United States Signal Office in Tucson since 1866, is as follows:
Year. Max. Min.
1876 108 19
1877 110 23
1878t 105 24
1879 105 22
1880 110 14
1881 (to date) 110 19

The highest point reached by the mercury in all the years indicated occurred in the month of June, with the exception of 1877, when the maximum was reached in July. The lowest point was reached in January in the years 1877, 1880 and 1881, and in December in the years 1876, 1878 and 1879. From the same source we give the record of the rainfall: The total rainfall was as follows: In 1876, 14 inches; 1877, 13 in.; 1878, 16.6 in.; 1879, 12 in.; 1880, 6.6 in.; 1881, (to date), 2.2 in. In 1876 rain fell on 50 days; in 1879, 43 days ; 1880, 46 days; 1881 (to date), 16 days. The following table indicates the month of each year in which the heaviest precipitation of rain occurred, and the amount falling in such month:

Year. Month. Amount.
1876 August 4.13 inches.
1877 December 2.91 "
1878 July 5.72 "
1879 December 3.31 inches,
1880 September 1.89 "
1881 (to date) ,. .March 1.17 "



This school is situated on Congress street, near the railroad depot, and consists of a long row or block of single-story adobe buildings, with a broad veranda enclosed by a railing along Congress street. It has two very large exercising yards for boys and girls, at the rear of the building. The school is classified into eight grades; four constituting the Grammar and four the Primary Department. The attendance averages about 230 pupils, two-thirds being male children, owing to the existence of the Sister's Convent School and Academy, which is popular with the parents of female children. The Principal of the public school, who is also City Superintendent of Schools, receives a salary of $150 per month. He personally instructs the first and second grammar classes. Teachers receive a salary of $100 per month.

Certificates of promotion are given at the end of each term, to pupils who are found qualified to enter a higher grade. Diplomas of Graduation are given on completion of the course to those who obtain 80 per cent, in examination.

This school is in a flourishing: condition, and the children in attendance are intelligent and neat in their appearance. It is contemplated to add a High School Department next year, with additional teachers, and to make other improvements.

Principal and City Superintendent, Prof. George C. Hall, Teacher of 1st and 2nd Grammar Grades.
Vice-Principal, M. M. Sherman, Teacher of 3rd and 4th Grammar Grades.
Mrs. M. W. Hall, Teacher of 1st and 2nd Primary Grades.
Miss Nora Smith, Teacher of 3rd and 4th Primary Grades.


This flourishing and popular educational institution of the Roman Catholic Church, is situated in the convent building adjacent to the church edifice of St. Augustine, in the central part of the city, and is in charge of Mother Hyacinth, Superioress. The Academy has 130 pupils in attendance, and is under the charge of Sister Lucretia, a highly cultivated lady and accomplished teacher.

The Parochial School containing 135 pupils, is under the charge of Sister Euphrasia. Both these schools are now self-supporting. For many years the Parochial School was wholly maintained by the generous liberality of P. R. Tully Esq., and even now he continues to guard its destinies and to give presents to the pupils in the holiday season, and premiums at the closing examinations.

The musical department of the Academy has 30 pupils, 20 of whom are not members of the school but attend from their homes. Four pianos are in use at the Academy, and the church organ is also utilized for musicial instruction. The musical department is in charge of Sister Entichiana.

In the higher grade of the Academy about 45 pupils are in daily attendance. In the second Academical department over 60.

As an indication of the tolerant spirit and wholesome deficiency of prejudice in this city, we will mention the fact that twenty-nine children of Jewish parents constantly attend the Catholic school.

In the school-room of the Academy is a magnificent piece of tapestry, some six by eight feet square, representing General Washington in his library, the handiwork of Miss Philips, a niece of P. R. Tully, Esq., a former pupil of the Academy. In the execution of this work the needle of Miss Philips was occupied one hour each day for two years.

The Novitiate of Mt. St. Joseph, situated near the Hospital in the western suburbs, a kind of Normal School for the preparation of Novices for teaching and for religious life. It is in charge of Mother Basil and contains three professed members and seven novices, five of the latter being professed novices. Four of these professed novices are in charge of St. Mary's Hospital and others teach a free school of thirty children from surrounding ranches. Country patients are received at this hospital, for which a stipulated fee is allowed by the county; and by the terms of a contract with the Southern Pacific Railroad Company the patients of that company are also cared for at a stipulated price. By these arrangements, together with the nominal charge for private patients, the hospital is self-sustaining. The hospital is situated about one and one-half mile from the center of the city, is two stories high and built of dressed stone. It is contemplated to add a third story to this building.


This school, for boys, is situated at the corner of Stone avenue and Ochoa street. The Principal is Prof. William E. Reardon; Assistant, Don Pablo Soto. The Primary department, for young boys, is situated at the residence of Bishop Salpointe, on Church street, and is in charge of Sister Leontine. The number of boys in attendance in summer is 190; in winter, 215. As at present organized, this school was established in 1874. The pupils are divided into first, second and third classes. Prof. Reardon instructs the first class, Don Pablo Soto the second class, and Sister Leontine the third, or Juvenile department. This school was founded in 1866.


This is a private school, for both sexes, conducted by Prof. J. M. Silva, and situated at No. 518 Osborn avenue, in Don Leopoldo Carrillo's garden. It has 19 boys and 25 girls, mostly Spanish pupils, in attendance.


This is a private school, for both sexes, situated at No. 22 Cushing street, and conducted by Misses Cruz R. and Donaciana T. Parra. Six girls and four boys are in attendance.


Pupils attending the Public School 230
Pupils attending St. Joseph's Female Academy 130
Pupils attending Parochial Female School 135
Pupils attending Novitiate, or Normal School 10
Pupils attending Free School, taught by Novitiates. . 30
Pupils attending St. Augustine's Parochial School (boys) 215—520
Pupils attending Prof. Silva's Modern School 44
Pupils attending Leceo Mario's Private School 10
Total 804


St Augustine Roman Catholic Church. — (Rectors, Rev. Francisco Jouvanceau, Rev. Anthony Jouvanceau; Bishop and Vicar Apostolic, Rt. Rev. J. B. Salpointe.) Church Plaza.

This church was established many years ago, near the old cemetery, where it was first known as the Church of the Presidio. Afterwards it was re-located in a small chapel near the corner of Congress street and Church Square. In 1866 the foundation of the present church edifice was laid, and completed suitable for worship in 1869. The construction of the new edifice was expensive, as building material was very costly at that time. Improvements on the building are still in progress.* A belfry has recently been added, and on the adjacent tower a statue of St. Augustine is to be placed. Its Sunday-school is largely attended.

Baptist Church. — (Rev. U. Gregory, Pastor.) Hold service at the County Court-house, until the completion of their church edifice at corner of Eighth street and Eighth avenue. This church has a Sunday-school.

First Presbyterian Church. — (Rev. O. Hurd, Pastor.) West side of Court-house Plaza. This is a large adobe building, commenced in 1879, and although used for secular worship, is not yet fully completed. The congregation is small, but in a flourishing condition. Its Sunday-school is well attended.

Methodist Episcopal Church. — (Rev. W. G. Mills, Pastor.) A brick building in course of construction at the comer of Pennington street and Stone avenue. Services are held at present in the Presbyterian Church. Rev. G. H. Adams, Bishop of Arizona, resides here, and is superintending the building of the church edifice. Miss Josie Schreiber is the organist at this church. The organization has a flourishing Sunday school.


All the following designated orders and societies are in a prosperous and growing condition:

Arizona Lodge, No. l, A.O.U.W. — Instituted January, 1881, with 22 charter members ; now has 45. Meeting nights, Wednesdays, in Odd Fellows' Hall, Grand Hotel building; Officers : Charles E. Holbrook, M. W.; Henry Buehman, F., Wm. M. Blaine, O.; H. Heineman, Re.; J. M. Berger, T.; Frank Miltenberg, Fin.; W. L. Cropper, G.

Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (Division 28). — A. Bruce, Chief Engineer ; Fred. Littlefield, F. A. E. Meets in Odd Fellows' Hall, Grand Hotel Block, on the first Monday, second Tuesday, and third Wednesday in each month.

I. O. G. T., Tucson Lodge, No. 4- — Instituted March 25, 1881, with 26 charter members; now has 50. Meets Friday evenings at Presbyterian Church. Officers: Jas. A. McFadden, W. C. T.; Mrs. E. M. Johnson, W. R. H. S.; Miss Josie Schrieber, W. L. H. S.; Miss Julia Ingram, W. V. T.; N. M. Townsend, W. S.; W. A. S., Miss Yetta Feldman ; Darwin T. Briggs, W. T.; G. E. Gonzales, W. F. S.; C. E. Serrott, W. M.; Miss Minnie Stovel, W. D. M.; Mrs. E. A. Halsted, W. I. G.; M. J. Brundage, W. O. G.; Rev. U. Gregory, Chaplain.

Pima County Lodge, No. 3, L. 0. 0. F. — Chartered January, 1881, with twenty charter members, now has a membership of fifty. Meeting nights, Thursday of each week, in hall, Grand Hotel building. Officers : Henry D. Corbett, N. G.; John Hart, V. G.; H. C. Kusel, Sec; W. F. Scott, Treas.; K. H. Choat, Per. Sec.

Tucson Turn Verein. — J. M. Berger, President; Henry Buehman, Vice-President; H. Kollman, First Secretary; H. C. Keisel, Second Secretary; Adolph Goldschmidt, Treasurer. Meetings are held every Saturday night, at Levin's Hall, until a building is erected. The society, although but recently organized, has fifty-three members.

Tucson Lodge, F. &. A. M.— Officers: A. M. Bragg, M.; G. J. Roskruge, S. W.; A. Marx, J. W.; C. T. Etchells, T.; S. M. Allis, Sec. First meeting was held March 28, 1881. Membership, thirty. Meet in Odd Fellows' Hall, Grand Hotel building, on the last Monday in each month.

Tucson Lodge, No. 3, K. of P. — J. A. Zabriskie, C. C; Moye Weeks, V. C; M. Gratto, P. C; H. D. Corbett, K. of R and S.; J. C. Perry, P.; M. T. Brown, M. of Ex.; C. K Drake, M. of F. This Lodge was instituted March 23, 1881, with twenty-eight charter members. It now has a membership of thirty-five with indication of a large increase. Meet Tuesday nights in Odd Fellows' Hall, Grand Hotel building.


For many years Lord & Williams did the only banking business in Tucson. Although not strictly a banking firm, their credit, capital, reputation and facilities were of such a high character as to justify the general confidence of the merchants, capitalists and bankers throughout the entire country. Thus they continued the sole occupants of the field until January, 1879, when the Pima County Bank was organized, with a large cash capital, by P. K Tully and the Jacobs Brothers. In April of the same year the Bank of Saffbrd, Hudson & Co. came into existence, also with a large cash capital. Both these banks rank among the foremost. Lord & Williams continue to transact important financial operations, as formerly.


The daily Citizen is an evening paper, Republican in politics, and the oldest of all the newspapers at present published in Tucson and the oldest in the Territory. It was founded as a weekly October 15, 1870, by Colonel John Wasson. In 1875 R. C. Brown, Esq., the present proprietor, purchased in and became a partner of Colonel Wasson, but afterwards sold back his interest. Subsequently Wasson sold the paper to John P. Clum, who in the early part of 1878 moved the paper to Florence, where it was issued until the latter part of 1879, when it reappeared in Tucson, and in the latter part of 1880 again became the property of R. C. Brown. A weekly edition is also published. The Citizen has a power press and a complete job department. [The office of this paper was totally destroyed by fire June 9, 1881, but the paper survives the catastrophe.]

The Arizona daily and weekly Star is published in Tucson, by L. C. Hughes, Esq., editor and proprietor. The daily is 28 columns and the weekly 82 columns. The paper was first started as the daily Bulletin, with only 12 columns, March 1, 1877, by L. C. Hughes and Charles Tully. In thirty days thereafter it was enlarged to 20 columns and the name changed to the Tri-Weekly Star. On August 1st of that year it was again enlarged to 25 columns, and thereafter issued as a weekly, and L. C. Hughes became the sole proprietor. On June 26, 1879, a 20-column daily was first issued in connection with the weekly, and the latter was at the same time enlarged to 32 columns, and the price reduced from five to three dollars per annum. Since that time the daily has been twice enlarged and is now 28 columns. In politics the paper is Democratic, yet this has not been made a leading feature. The interests of the people and the development of the resources of the Territory has been its constant aim. Its policy on Territorial matters has been such that it has secured a large and increasing patronage, until it has advanced to its present state of influence and prosperity. The Star circulates largely in the adjoining Territories, in California, Sonora and the Eastern States as well as in Arizona. Its various stages of successive growth may be considered as a reflex of the constantly increasing business activity and wonderful growth of this section of Arizona. A large steam-power press and complete job office belong to this establishment. A new Star building is being erected on the corner of Congress and Convent streets, which will be one of the most imposing in the city.

The Daily Journal is independent in politics, and was founded January 1st, 1881, by its present proprietor, F. P. Thompson, Esq. A paper called the Weekly Mining Journal, devoted to mining interests, is also issued from this establishment. A new Hoe power press and job press has recently been added to the mechanical department, as well as additional type and other appliances.

El Fronterizo. This is a seven -column weekly newspaper, published in Spanish, and ably edited by its proprietor, Don Carlos I. Velasco. It was established September 28th, 1878. It is issued every Friday, has a large circulation in Arizona and Sonora, and is every way in a prosperous condition. Office, No. 621 Stone Avenue.


This designation was given by the Mexican residents to that quarter of the city lying along Meyer and adjacent streets, southward of the business portion of the city, occupied by the Americans. It means Free Zone, and in earlier times was allowed to remain without legal restraints or the presence of a policeman. Here, the Mescalian could imbibe his fill, and either male or female could, in peaceful intoxication, sleep on the sidewalk or in the middle of the streets, with all their ancient rights respected. Fandangoes, monte, chicken fights, broils, and all the amusements of the lower class of Mexicans, were, in this quarter, indulged in without restraint; and to this day much of the old-time regime prevails, although the encroachments of the American element indicate the ultimate doom of the customs in the Berrio Libre. It must be understood that these remarks apply only to the lower class of Mexicans, and not to the cultured Mexican residents of the city, who, for intelligence and enterprise, are foremost among our people.


Silver Lake. — This place is situated one and one-half miles south-west of the city, and is a constant resort, both day and night, for the inhabitants of Tucson. The lake is caused by a dam of masonry in the Santa Cruz River, and extends over several acres. Several boats are available for sailing or rowing up the river beyond the lake. A row of commodious bathhouses are constructed for the accommodation of bathers, and a stout rope extends across a portion of the lake for the convenience of persons learning to swim. The hotel, bath-houses, pavilion, lake and grove occupy a space of twenty acres, leased and controlled by J. F. Rickey and J. O. Bailey, who also own the mile race track adjacent thereto, and where the annual races are held. This is the only race track near Tucson and the only swimming baths in Arizona.

Levins Park. — This ever popular resort is situated at the foot of Pennington street, but a few steps from the business heart of the city. It consists of a grove of tall and shady Cottonwood trees seven acres in extent, in which are located a threatre, music pavilion, billiard alcoves, bowling alley, bar, restaurant, baths, brewery, shooting gallery, chairs, tables, etc. A stream of rapid running water passes through the grove, and near its banks is a large plat of green grass, both grateful to the sight and gladdening to the heart. A large enclosed pavilion occupies a portion of the grounds, which on State occasions in Tucson is utilized for balls and ceremonies, by the societies and the polite society of Tucson in general. All day and far into the night, brilliantly illuminated, this park is resorted to by the population, and without its beneficent shade and other luxuries Tucson would be lacking in one of its principal features. Joseph Bayer and Louis Schwarz have leased this park for a term of five years, and by their liberal and enterprising management are extending its popularity.

Fullers Springs, or Agua Calienta, is situated some fourteen miles east of the city at the foot of the mountains — the road passing Fort Lowell. It is the property of Mr. James P. Fuller, who is making it a useful place of resort for sick people, or those who seek temporary recreation away from the heat and business of the city. The Mineral Warm Springs are already celebrated for their efficacy in speedily curing kidney complaints and rheumatism. The medicated water is 88 degrees Fahrenheit, as it comes from the earth, and although many persons drink it thus heated for the sake of obtaining Its full force of gases, others prefer to let it cool over night in an olla, and thus drink it, refreshing and invigorating in the morning. These waters contain soda, magnesia, iron and sulphur, and are pronounced equal to the famous hot springs of Arkansas. Mr. Fuller has provided cottages and ample hotel accommodations for the public. An orchard of 3,000 trees partly belongs to this ranch.

San Xavier del Bac. — This is an old mission situated in the Santa Cruz valley, nine miles south of the city, and which was established by the Jesuit missionaries towards the end of the seventeen century, for the purpose of civilizing the Papago Indians. It is constantly visited by travelers and other persons interested in local vestiges of the earliest settlements of the country. By the Mexican resident it is a place of resort when occasional bull-fights take place in that vicinity.


Buell’s Addition. — Adjoining the city limits on the eastward there is a tract of 160 acres laid off in blocks and streets, and known as Buell's Addition. It is a level tract, and good water in abundance can be obtained at a depth of from 30 to 40 feet. The location is very healthy, being somewhat higher than the city; and the temperature at all times is from ten to twelve deg. cooler than in town. The border of this addition is but three blocks distant from the railroad and depot of the Southern Pacific, and but half a mile from the business part of Tucson. A number of substantial houses are already built and occupied, and the lots being cheap, are being rapidly purchased and settled upon. It is the terminal point of one of the projected lines of street railroad. (See advertisement herein, as to prices of lots.)

Allen's Addition. — This tract adjoins Buell's Addition, and contains several substantial residences. Lots 50 by 183 feet, sold on the installment plan.

Real Estate Associates. — The project of this association is the laying out of a tract of from four hundred to six hundred acres of land immediately adjoining the northwestern portion of the city. This land has a small lake of water supplied by springs, being the outlet of a gravel bed underlying the entire mesa for miles around. They contemplate laying this entire tract out into blocks, avenues and streets upon which may be erected modern cottages and villas, which can be supplied with water from the aforesaid lake, while under pressure, throughout the houses and hydrants. Thus the trees, shrubbery and flowers can be amply supplied with water. The first steps in their progress is the laying out of a boulevard, which will be a continuation of Main Street North. Shade trees will be set out on each side and, with the abundant water supply, the residents can have a prolific growth of trees, deciduous, evergreen and fruit, and flowers and shrubbery ad libitum. They propose, in order to secure an auspicious beginning, to donate to the first ten acceptable parties, who will erect an attractive dwelling thereon, the entire plot forming half a block front on each corner and two hundred and thirty feet on the boulevard by two hundred feet on the cross streets. The company also propose to unite with these parties in the erection of ten other dwelling houses of the most approved style of architecture. The projectors of this enterprise have issued a pamphlet setting forth the prospectus of the association. It is confidently believed that the consummation of these praiseworthy plans will result in securing a permanent and valuable accession to the population of the future great commercial metropolis of Arizona. This project has its origin in the public spirit of our worthy townsman, C. M. K. Paulison, whose experience in building up the city of Passaic, N. J., during the past twenty years, justify us in the belief that it will become a grand success.

Osborn's Addition. This tract consists of three blocks of land situated south-west of the city along Osborn avenue from its intersection with Main Street South. It was laid out in 1880 with lots one hundred and fifty by fifty feet, and streets eighty feet in width. Lots are at present selling at from $30 to $75 each. The drive to Silver Lake passes this tract as also the main thoroughfare up the Santa Cruz valley and to Sonora. The line of street railroad is also projected past this tract.

Bruckner's Addition. — This body of land consists of some thirty blocks (157 acres) adjoining the southern limits of the city. Lots are fifty by one hundred and eighty feet and streets eighty feet wide. These lots are now selling at about $50 each.

George L. Lynde has a tract south of the city, which is laid off into lots and blocks for sale on reasonable terms.


Iron Foundry and Machine Shop. — This establishment was founded about the beginning of 1880, by P. N. O'Donnell, of Los Angeles. It is situated at the corner of Eighth street and Third avenue, eastward of the railroad. The machinery consists of two lathes, a drill press, and circular saw; smelting cupola, and a twelve-horse power engine. A large stock of iron and coal is on hand, and Mr. O'Donnell is prepared to make all kinds of quartz-mill castings, iron fronts for buildings and any other work in iron or brass.

Tucson Vinegar Works. — This valuable industry has been recently established near the railroad depot, by W. J. Doherty, a gentleman of extensive experience in the business. The establishment has all necessary appurtenances, and the vinegar is produced from pure honey, and sold to the trade in from five to fifty gallon kegs. •

Soda and Ice Works. — The Pioneer Soda and Ice Works are situated at No. 215 Convent street, corner of Corrall street, G. W. Van Hoevenberg and L. T. Farr, proprietors. The works and buildings cover an area 100 by 150 feet square. Ice is manufactured from pure water on the premises, by the Van Hoevenberg & Stevens process, with a 16-horse-power engine. The soda factory, formerly the property of J. F. Innes & Co., is the only one in the city, and has a capacity of from 200 to 1,000 dozen bottles per day. The ice factory has a capacity for turning out three tons of ice daily. A wagon delivers these desirable articles of consumption to all parts of the city. Ten men are employed in both departments, during the hot season.

American and Mexican Mining Exchange. — This institution was established December 15, 1880, for the purpose of developing the mining resources of Arizona, of which the city of Tucson is the recognized permanent center, and to promote mining intercourse with the neighboring State of Sonora, in Mexico, by bringing to the knowledge of American capitalists, merchants and manufacturers, the natural wealth of both sections. The active heads of this important institution at the present time are Don J. M. Soto, Col. F. Stanford, and Don Marcus Forster. It is situated in a spacious building erected for the purpose at No. 417 Meyer Street South, and is resorted to generally by business men and capitalists visiting Tucson. Every convenience has been prepared for the accommodation of the public, including writing tables,' library, reading room, etc. Specimens of all leading mines are on exhibition. Parties abroad who desire information concerning mines or lands in Arizona, may address the Exchange or any of the parties mentioned above, and be certain of a prompt, courteous and reliable answer.

Eagle Flour Mills. — These steam mills were built 14 years ago, by Lee &; Scott, and were purchased seven years since by the present proprietor, E. N. Fish, Esq. They contain three run of stone, with a capacity of over 7,000 lbs. per day of 12 hours with two stones. The engine is 2 5 -horse power. Grain from the vicinity of Tucson is here ground, and sold all over Arizona. Few of the business men of Tucson are more active and energetic than Mr. Fish. Neither the broiling sun nor the down-pouring rain interferes with whatever business he has in hand to perform. Since his residence here many public duties have been forced upon his care. He has frequently filled the office of City Treasurer; for eight years he was a member and for four years chairman of the Board of County Commissioners. Recently he acted as a member of the special commission appointed to adjust the difference between Pima and the new County of Cochise. Mr. Fish has been unfortunate this year from successive losses by fire; but his natural energies will enable him to speedily repair all damages and recover all losses.

A. & C. Lumber Company. — J. N. Mason, Esq., is Manager of this enterprise in Tucson, which contains the principal stock of lumber in the Territory. Mr. Mason expresses the belief that the time is approaching when our people will cease building with adobes and use lumber. His theory is that while a frame building may become heated sooner than an adobe, it also cools off quicker; whereas, when the adobe once becomes heated in summer, it remains so night and day until cold weather returns, and people move out at night and sleep in the open air. This company has saw-mills at Alta and Dutch Flat, California, and from Tucson ship lumber and other building material to all parts of Arizona. [See advertisement.]

C. T. Etchells’ Blacksmith Shop. — Perhaps nowhere else in the United States are there such large blacksmith shops as here in Tucson. The one belonging to Mr. Etchells is at least 150 feet square, and those of Mr. Quinlin and Mr. Bragg are of similar proportions. The present establishment of Mr. Etchells was the pioneer business in this part of Arizona, it having been established by John Burt, in 1856. Mr. Etchells became its proprietor in 1868. He has in use three forges, a lathe and engine, and all the appliances necessary for blacksmithing, wagon making, or repairing mining machinery. Employment is given to eight men.

Sweetland & Co. commenced business in 1880. They manufacture spring mattresses, and cots, and picture-frames. (See their advertisement.)

Leo Goldschmidt, in connection with his gigantic furniture establishment, manufactures mattresses, bedding, and furniture to order. (See advertisement.)

Two brick-yards are doing an active business in this vicinity, one of them being situated near Silver Lake. Wetmore & Dean are the agents in the city.

Two breweries partly supply the population with beer, which is regarded as a healthy drink in this climate. One of these is the property of Alex. Levin, and situated at the Park; the other is located in the vicinity of Silver Lake.

A tannery, cooper-shop, and soap-factory are among the new industries required here, and from which large profits would be realized.



Tucson to Picacho 46 Miiel.
Tucson to Casa Granda (thence stages for Florence, 25 miles; Silver King, 57 miles) 65
Tucson to Maricopa (thence stages for Phoenix, 30 miles; Vulture, 90 miles; Wickenberg, 90 miles; Prescott, 152 miles) 91
Tucson to Gila Bend 128
Tucson to Yuma (thence steamer to Colorado River points) 247
Tucson to Los Angeles 496
Tucson to San Francisco 978


Tucson to Papago 14
Tucson to Pantano (thence stage to Empire City, 14 miles, and Harshaw, 50 miles) 28
Tucson to Benson (thence by stage to Tombstone, 30 miles; also to Bisbee and Dragoon Pass) 46
Tucson to Ochoa 55
Tucson to Willcox (thence stage to Fort Grant, 24 miles; Camp Thomas, 64 miles; Globe, 132 miles, and San Carlos, 99 miles) 85
Tucson to San Simon (to Gayleyville, 22 miles) 125
Tucson to Lordsburg 150
Tucson to Deming, New Mexico 230


Tucson to Fort Lowell 7
Tucson to Fuller's Springs and Resort 14


Tucson to Pelton (Silver Bell District) 45
Tucson to Abbie Waterman Mine (Silver Hill) 40
Tucson to Cababi 70
Tucson to Meyer’s District 100


Tucson to Old Hat 45
Tucson to Old Camp Grant 47


Tucson to San Xavier del Bac 9
Tucson to Maish & Driscoll’s Ranch 34
Tucson to Tubac 50
Tucson to Cerro Colorado 58
Tucson to Toltec 64
Tucson to Arivaca 67
Tucson to Calabasas 70
Tucson to Babocivori Peak 80
Tucson to the Mexican Line 75
Tucson to Altar (in Sonora) 150
Tucson to Magdalena 150
Tucson to Hermosillo 300
Tucson to Guaymas (by railroad from Hermosillo) 400


Tucson to Davidsons Springs 18
Tucson to Empire Ranch 41
Tucson to Camp Crittenden 52
Tucson to Hughes' Ranch 54
Tucson to Harshaw 72
Tucson to Belmont 81


To the East by railroad, daily.
To the West by railroad, daily.
To Arivaca, Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays.
To Tubac and Calabasas, Mondays.
To Magdalena and Guymas, Tuesdays and Saturdays.
To Altar, Mondays and Wednesdays.
To Riverside, in Pinal County, Mondays and Fridays.
To Catalina, Mondays and Fridays.
Money Order office at Tucson P. O. Open from 9 A. M. to 4 p. M. (Sundays excepted). Closes at noon on Saturdays.
General delivery open from 8 A. M. to 6:30 P. M.


Colville, Ed, 212 Camp st.
Goodfriend, Simon, bookkeeper, (C. T. Etchells).
Maxwell, Fred, commission merchant, 3 Congress st.
Murphy John, miner, res. Palace Hotel.
Oldham, John H., special policeman, res. Palace Hotel.

Page 29— "Roster of Officers at Fort Lowell."
General Staff, 3
Field, Staff and Band, 9
Co. M 6th Cavalry, 55
Detachment 6th Cavalry, 27
Total, 94

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