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Joseph Ambrosy

Joseph A. Ambrosy, located in Tucson in 1912 and there he has rapidly won recognition as a skilled veterinary surgeon, building up a large practice. He is a specialist on diseases of the eye of all kinds of domestic animals and is a very skillful surgeon. He is a native of southern Austria, his birth occurring on the 14th of May, 1870. Upon completing his preliminary education he learned the horseshoeing trade which is one of the requirements for admission to the Royal Veterinary College in Vienna. He as graduated from that institution in 1889. In 1888 he entered the Austrian where he served for five years, being discharged with the rank of captain. It was in 1893 that Dr. Ambrosy came to the United States, having decided that the new world afforded better opportunities for a successful career than were to be found in the most congested sections of Europe. He first located at Bridgeport, Connecticut where he engaged in horseshoeing and also practiced veterinary surgery. from there he went to Morton County North Dakota, where he established a shop which he conducted for three years. He next went to North Yakima, Washington and after a brief residence there removed to San Francisco California where he attended the Veterinary College from which he subsequently graduated. During that time he was residing in Larkspur, Marin County, that state where he also established a shop and engaged in practice there and in San Francisco. In 1912 the college advised him to locate in Tucson as there was an excellent opening there for a capable man in the profession. This he did and has had no occasion to regret it. He is veterinary for the Tucson Farms Company and the Autrey and Peterson Dairy and is also live stock inspection. In addition to his duties in this connection he is rapidly building up a large private practice. Dr. Ambrosy was married in Vienna Austria in 1893 to Miss Marie Appel.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Teofilo Aros

Teofilo E. Aros, a well known resident of Tucson, is one of the prominent cattlemen of Arizona, where he also has valuable real estate and mining interests. He was born in San Bernardino County, California in 1860 and is a son of the late Antonio Aros, a native of Sonora, Mexico who went to California in 1849 and engaged in the cattle and mercantile business and also operated a large ranch. He prospered in his various undertakings and was known as one of the successful business men of the southwest. In 1884 he removed with his family to Arizona, locating on a cattle ranch in the Sasabe District and there passed the remainder of his life, his death occurring in 1912, when he had reached a ripe old age. He had acquired large interests, including extensive and valuable land holdings in Mexico. He assisted in the development of the southwest and in early life participated in many of the Indian Wars in this section. The mother of our subject died July 25, 1903. The boyhood and youth of Teofilo E. Aros were passed in his native state, his education being acquired in St. Vincent's College in Los Angeles. When old enough to assume the duties of manhood he became associated with his father in the management of the cattle ranch and he also assisted him in conducting a general merchandise store at Sasabe, where he filed on a hundred and sixty acres of government land on which he proved up. For a time he engaged in teaching school in that district and also held the office of postmaster. He holds the title to some valuable mining interests in Mexico and has extensive realty holdings in Tucson, in partnership with his brother and two sisters. Mr. Aros removed to that city with his family in the fall of 1912 in order to five his children better educational advantages. Mr. Aros married Miss Mercedes Celaya, a native of Mexico and to them have been born ten sons, eight of whom are living: Antonio, Gustave, Teofilo E., Jr., Aureliano, Randolpho, Bernardo, Armando and Jesus. The family residence is located on East Fourteenth Street.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 612

George Atkinson

George W. Atkinson, a resident of Tucson was one of the pioneer cattle men of Arizona. His birth occurred in Peoria, Illinois on the 14th of December 1844, his parents being John and Sarah (Largent) Atkinson, the father a native of Yorkshire England and the mother of Virginia. The latter died in Illinois in 1846, and about 1818 the father married Sarah Davis. They continued to reside in Illinois until the spring of 1860 when the family started across the country with a wagon and team for Colorado, a distance of a thousand miles. From there they went to St. Joseph Missouri and on the Atchison Kansas where they crossed the Missouri River. They crossed the Big Blue and the Little Blue Rivers and traveled up the east side of the Platte River to Fort Kearney, reaching their destination-- the city of Denver--on the 1st of May 1860.

George W. Atkinson was a youth of sixteen when he accompanied his father on his removal to Colorado. Such education he received was obtained in the public schools of his native state and after locating in Denver he learned the brick makers trade under his father. Subsequently he became a member of the firm of Atkinson and Baker, but in February 1868 he entered the employ of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and for three years was a member of the construction crew. In the summer of 1877 he made a trip to Deadwood South Dakota but in the autumn of the same year came to Globe Arizona. There he established a brick yard being the first man in the state to employ native clay in that industry. On January 1, 1879 he removed to Calabasas, then Pima but now Santa Cruz County where he erected a hotel, constructed from brick manufactured from Arizona clay. While engaged in building he settled on a cattle ranch in the vicinity of the town and turned his attention to stock raising and farming. He put in a pumping plant to irrigate, obtaining water from the Santa Cruz and Sonora Rivers. Owing to the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court rendered in favor of the Baca claimants to the Baca Float No. 3 where Mr. Atkinson's ranch was located, he disposed of his cattle selling three thousand fifty head for ninety-nine thousand and twenty five dollars. He is now living retired in Tucson.

Of his many experiences on the frontier Mr. Atkinson relates many unusual experiences. In Colorado in 1864 he joined Tyler's Rangers and had his first experience in Indian warfare. The next year he was again called out to assist in quelling an uprising among the Indians and was present at the massacre of Sand Creek. During his early ranching days in Arizona he had difficulty with both the Mexicans and the Indians and on several occasions barely escaped with his life. from 1895 to 1897 he was a member of the firm of L. Zeckendorf and Company who handled about forty thousand head of cattle, theirs being one of the largest ranches in this section. One day in 1879 Mr. Atkinson went to the ranch of P. Kitchen, located five miles south of Calabasas, and on his return tip was waylaid by five Mexicans who relieved him of his saddle and forty dollars as well as his overcoat. He came to Tucson, supplied himself with another gun, ammunition and money, and two weeks later had a similar experience. On this occasion the outlaws took him prisoner escorting him to his ranch house where they compelled him to cook their dinner and then demanded five hundred dollars. Refusing to comply with their terms they slipped a noose around his neck, pulled him up a few times and finally released him upon the payment of thirty dollars. Two weeks later the entire gang was arrested near Magdalena Mexico and in their possession was found Mr. Atkinson's saddle and overcoat.

Mr. Atkinson married Miss Julia Jordan in 1882 and they had no children but adopted two sons, Samuel and Joseph D. Mrs. Atkinson passed away in 1907 and in 1908 he married Miss Catherine Deegan, a native of Ireland and they have become the parents of three daughters and one son, Dora, Georgia, George W. Jr and Ione.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 110

Coles Bashford

Coles Bashford was born near Cole Springs New York, January 24, 1816 and finished his education at Wesleyan University, New York after which he studied law and was admitted to practice in all the courts of his native state in the year 1842. He served as District Attorney of Wayne County New York, elected in 1847. In 1850 he moved to Wisconsin and soon attained an enviable position in his profession. He was elected to the State Senate on the Whig ticket, and upon the dissolution of that party became one of the founders of the Republican party in 1854-55, being elected to the Legislative Assembly at that time. IN 1855 he was elected Governor of Wisconsin.

During the winter of 1862-63 he was domiciled in Washington but being imbued with the spirit of the pioneer he accompanied the officials appointed for the organization of the Territory of Arizona arriving with the party at Prescott in 1864. Mr. Bashford served as Attorney-General of Arizona; as President of the council of the First Territorial Legislature, have been elected from Pima County, and as Delegate to Congress from Arizona in the 40th Congress.

He was the first lawyer admitted to practice in Territorial Courts. In May 1864 he was admitted to practice at Tucson. In 1871 he compiled the various session laws into one volume having been appointed to do this work by the Legislature. He was also re-elected to the second session of the Legislature.

He was active in political affairs until his death in Prescott, April 25, 1878. His remains were interred at Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland California and the inscription on his tombstones says: "Write me as one who loves his fellowman."

His widow who survived him and now resides in Oakland, bore the maiden name of Frances Adams Foreman and was born at Seneca Falls New York. Born of this union were seven children: Elizabeth, widow of G.A. Specher; Margaret, wife of R.H. Burmeister; William C., for a long time associated in business with Mr. Burmeister under the firm name of Bashford and Burmeister and who died in Los Angeles in 1915; Helen B., widow of W.E. Smith; Belle, who died at the age of eleven; Lillian E, wife of A.W. Kirkland and Edward L. of Oakland California.

Source: History of Arizona, Thomas Edwin Farish, Vol. 2 1915, pg. 90

John Behan

A life varied in service and faultless in honor came to a close June 7, 1912 when John H.Behan died athis home in Tucson. In his career those things which make for success-- good citizenship and worthy living--found ample justification and the record of his activities may well serve as a source of inspiration to the younger generation. Mr. Behan was born in Westport Missouri and came as a pioneer to Arizona, crossing the plains in 1863. He settled immediately in Tucson and was engaged by the U.S. government to furnish supplies to the troops stationed at the fort. He afterward went to Prescott where he freighted to the mines with bull teams, and gradually became well known in public life, serving as county recorder and sheriff of Yavapai County.

During the course of his career he made many changes in location, becoming familiar with standards and conditions in all parts of Arizona and proving his loyalty and public spirit by worthy public service. He was elected to the territorial legislature from Mohave County on the democratic ticket and was afterward the first sheriff of Cochise County. He followed this by a period of service as superintendent of the state prison at Yuma under Governor Zulick and was then appointed by President Cleveland special agent of the department of the treasury for Arizona and Texas with headquarters at El Paso.

At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War his patriotic spirit aroused, Mr. Behan joined the army and was sent to the front as a member of the quartermaster department under General Humphreys. He saw active service in Cubaand continued his military career inChina, where he took part in many engagements during the Boxer uprising.

The last years of his life were spent in Tucson where he was connected with the commissary department of the Arizona Eastern Railroad in which capacity he was serving at the time of his death, June 7, 1912. His upright and straightforward life and his long and honorable public service won him the respect and esteem of all with whom he came in contact, and his death was sincerely mourned by his many friends.

Mr. Behan was married and had one son, Albert P. who was born in Prescott in 1873. He acquired his education in the common schools of that city and in Cogswell Polytechnic College in San Francisco.

Following in his father's footsteps he entered public life and in it gained a position of importance and prominence. He began in 1880 as page in the territorial legislature and when that body removed to Phoenix he served as messenger in 1893. He was deputy collector of customs on the Mexican border and later for three years under sheriff of Yuma County.

This was followed by eight years devoted to mining in Mexico but at the end of that time he returned to Arizona and in 1911 was made deputy sheriff of Yuma county, an office in which he is now serving, discharging his duties in an able and conscientious manner.

Source: Arizona the Youngest State, 1913

Joseph Bethune

Judge Bethune, who, in his efforts to preserve law and order, has shown much wisdom, good judgment and has balanced the scales of justice with an impartial hand. He is a native of Georgia, born in Columbus, July 3, 1842, and the son of James N. and Frances (Gundy) Bethune, natives of that state. The father was a soldier in the Seminole War, served as Captain and was General of the militia of Georgia at an early day and was always known as General Bethune. A lawyer by profession he held many offices and being a man of much more than the average ability, a graduate of the University of Georgia and a contemporary of Calhoun, Crawford and others, was well known all over the country. For many years he was editor of the "Columbus Times," and he founded the "Columbus Inquirer" which is still published there. One of the most prominent and popular men of the State, his career was a brilliant one from start to finish. Before he had reached his twenty first year he was made solicitor general of his district in Georgia. His death occurred in Washington in December, 1895. His father, John Bethune, was surveyor general of Georgia for many years.

Joseph D. Bethune passed his boyhood and youth in his native county and by the time the Civil War broke out had received a good literary education in the public schools. He dropped his books, however, and in April 1861, enlisted in Company G., Second Georgia Regiment, and served through the greater part of the war. He participated in all the principal engagements in the South and was twice wounded, once at the Battle of Chickamauga and again at Malvern Hill. He was obliged to go to the hospital and has never fully recovered from the one received at Chickamauga. In 1864 he was in command of a company of artillery with the rank of first lieutenant and served in that capacity until captured or until the close of the war. He surrendered at Macon Georgia and afterward went north and settled at Warrenton, Virginia, where in connection with farming, he practiced law until 1876. from there he moved to Los Angeles, California, practiced his profession and was registrar of the United States Land Office for two and a half years. He then resigned and in March 1893, removed to Tucson Arizona on account of his health, and practiced law here until 1894 when he was appointed judge of the First District Court of Arizona, a position he has held up to the present time. As a lawyer and judge he has but few equals in the Territory and as a citizen and neighbor is highly esteemed.

Judge Bethune was married in 1869 to Miss Mary Agnes Clark, a native of Virginia and a daughter of a Baltimore merchant. Six children have been given them: Frank, James N., Isabelle, Joseph D., Fannie and Mary Agnes. Mrs. Bethune is a member of the Presbyterian Church.

Source: History of Arizona, 1898

"The spelling of the maiden name of Judge Bethune's mother is Gunby." Ken Thomas 03 Mar 2014

John Black

John A. Black, proprietor of the largest jewelry store in Arizona is a practical, highly educated gentleman and one aptly skilled in every branch of his calling. He is a native of Scotland, born in Aberdeen in 1853 and educated in Union Row Academy. When but a boy he served an apprenticeship at the wholesale dry goods business n his native land and in 1873 crossed the ocean and settled in Toronto, Canada where he was engaged in the wholesale dry goods business for less than a year. From there he went to Chicago, where soon after arriving he was employed in the wholesale jewelry business and later represented one of the largest houses in that line in Chicago, through Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and New Mexico, for several years, making Denver his headquarters.

Mr. Black was married in Chicago in 1882 and gave up traveling. An opening presented itself for a jewelry store in Tucson and he began business there in April 1883. Since that time he has resided in that flourishing city and carries a large and well selected stock that would do credit to a much larger city than Tucson.

Mr. Black is official timekeeper for the Southern Pacific Railroad and was Commissioner of Immigration for two years, during Governor Wolfey's administration.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Robert Bollen

Robert T. Bollen, deceased, was a pioneer in Arizona connected with business interests of Casa Grande, as proprietor of a large livery stable and hay and grain business. He was a native of Texas, born near San Antonio and spent the early years of his life in Illinois but came as a pioneer into the western country. He located in California in 1850 and spent five years mining on the Fraser River. The year 1855 he was in Oregon, where he participated in the Rogue River Indian War and for that service he later received a pension from the Government. From Oregon he went to British Columbia, where he mined for six years and then went to Virginia City, Nevada. He also engaged in cattle raising and came to Arizona in 1877. For a number of years he drove a stage between Florence and Casa Grande but abandoned that occupation to ranching and cattle dealing. Afterward he conducted a large livery stable. He died March 9, 1915 at the age of seventy four years.

On the 9th of January 1913, Mr. Bollen married Miss Carmelita Lopez, a young lady of marked musical talent, playing several different instruments and possessing a fine voice. She is a native of Florence and is considered one of the best singers in Arizona.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 824

Peter Brady

Peter Rainsford Brady came on his paternal side from good old Irish stock. His mother, Anna Rainsford was from Virginia. He was born in Georgetown, District of Columbia, August 4, 1825; received his education in part at Georgetown College, later entering the Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland from which he was graduated 1844. After cruising around the Mediterranean Sea in the U.S. vessel Plymouth he resigned from the navy and left his home October 26, 1846 for San Antonio Texas where he enlisted as a Lieutenant in the Texas Rangers and served with distinction in the Mexican War. After the war Mr. Brady joined a surveying party under Colonel Andrew B. Gray, who made a survey from Marshall, Texas to El Paso, thence across the country to Tubac and from the latter point made branch surveys, one to Port Lobos on the Gulf of California and the other to Fort Yuma and San Diego. Mr. Brady served as a captain on this expedition and was prominent in many Indian fights. When the work was completed, the company disbanded at San Francisco.

Mr. Brady was of an adventurous spirit and in his younger life preferred the wilderness to civilization. In 1854 he came to Arizona and settled in Tucson. After the organization of the Territory he held several public offices and was sheriff for two terms. He was married in 1859 to Juanita Mendibles and had four children, all boys. She died in 1871 and he married Miss Maria Ontonia Ochoa of Florence Arizona by whom he had three boys and one girl. He settled in Florence in 1872 and made it his home for twenty seven years. He engaged in farming, mining and stock raising and in 1881 he received $60,000 for his half interest in the Vekol Mine.

"In 1894," says his daughter, Miss Margaret A. Brady, "my father was appointed as Special Agent for the Interior Department in the U.S. Private Court of Land Claims, and he obtained valuable information in behalf of the Government in the Peralta-Reavis land fraud. His notes are very humorous relative to the ridiculous claims of Reavis and his wife. I can say that it was greatly due to my father's information that the Government was able to identify the fraud."

In 1898 he served for the last time in the Upper House of the Territorial Legislature. In 1899 Mr. Brady moved with his family from Florence to Tucson where he lived up to the time of his death, May 2, 1902 at the age of 77. All his children are still living and have their residences in Arizona. His second wife died August 14, 1910.

Source: History of Arizona, Thomas Edwin Farish, Vol. 2 1915, pg. 283

Philip Brannen

Philip Cornelius Brannen, one of the enterprising and progressive business men of Tucson, is now identified with mercantile interests as a successful clothier. He was born in Ottawa, Canada, June 12, 1864 and is of Irish lineage. His paternal grandparents were natives of Ireland, the grandfather having been born in County Cavan, while the grandmother came from Cork. They settled in Canada and at Van Kleek Hill, Canada, occurred the birth of their son, Philip R. Brannen, who engaged in the business of mining and contracting. He was one of the men who helped to make history in the western country. He took the contract to build some of the snow sheds on the Central Pacific Railroad through the Sierra Nevada Mountains and was identified with mining at White Pine, California, in the latter part of 1868 and 1869. When he went to California in 1867 he made the trip around Cape Horn. In 1870 and 1871 he followed mining at Eureka, Nevada and won a fortune. In the spring of 1872 he returned to Canada and removed his family to Champaign, Illinois, where he settled on a large farm, making his home there until his death. In the meantime, however, he had become interested in mining in Colorado. The farm is still in the possession of his son, Philip C. Brannen, who is the only survivor of the family of three sons. One brother, Dr. Dennis J. Brannen, was a pioneer of Arizona. The father passed away in Illinois in July 1898 and the mother's death occurred in the year 1908.

Philip C. Brannen was a lad of about eight years when he accompanied his parents on their removal to Illinois. He supplemented a public school education by study in the University of Illinois at Champaign and his practical business training was that of the farm, with the work of which he early became familiar. He was a young man of twenty three years, when in 1887 he left Illinois and came to Arizona, spending some time at work in mercantile establishments in Flagstaff and in Phoenix. In 1897 he arrived in Tucson and for four years was employed in the clothing department of the store operated by the Albert Steinfeld Company, dry-goods merchants, gaining during that time a practical experience which has proved invaluable to him in the conduct of his independent enterprise. In 1901 he established himself in the clothing business and has since won substantial success, securing, in recognition of his well selected line of goods, his courteous service and reasonable prices, a large and representative patronage. This does not, however, cover the scope of his business activities and interests for he is a director of the Gila Land and Cattle Company and a director of the Consolidated National Bank.

At Chicago, Illinois, Mr. Brannen was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth M. Barry, a native of Canada and a daughter of Michael J. and Mary (Lynch) Barry. Mr. Barry was engaged extensively in the lumber business at Barry Lakes, Canada and it was in honor of him that the lakes were named. He subsequently removed to Rochelle, Illinois, retiring from active business at that time. Both he and his wife have now passed away. To Mr. and Mrs. Brannen have been born three children, Dorothy Mary, Phyllis M. and Philip Barry all now students in the high school of Tucson.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 634

Rosario Brena

Rosario Brena, founder, president and manager of the Brena Commercial Company for nearly thirty years is now deceased. He was born in Sonora, Mexico in 1854 and was there reared and educated. In 1878 he came to Tucson and entered the employ of L. Zeckendorf and Company for whom he worked about six years. He then embarked in the grocery business on his own account and was engaged in the retail trade until 1901. He opened a wholesale establishment under the name of the Brena Commercial Company of which he was president and general manager until his death, which occurred on the 18th of January 1914. It was the only exclusive wholesale store of the kind in Arizona and it prospered from the very first. Mr. Brena enlarged his business from time to time to meet the growing demands of his trade and it is now one of the city's most thriving commercial establishments. Its trade now covers southern Arizona and a large portion of the territory of old Mexico. In addition to his commercial enterprise, Mr. Brena at one time owned and conducted a large cattle ranch in the Sopori district.

Mr. Brena was united in marriage to Miss Mary Cotton who was born in Mexico of American parentage and they became the parents of two sons: Pedro C., who is mentioned below and Rosario C., who died August 8, 1911.

Pedro C. Brena who is now president and general manager of the Brena Commercial Company was reared at home and completed his education in the University of Arizona. After leaving school, he entered his father's office and for twelve years was connected with him in business. In 1912 he married Miss Concha Calderon, a native of Mexico.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Charles Brown

Charles O. Brown was born in New York and when a young man came west. He is said to have been a member of the Glanton band which was engaged in gathering scalps of the Indians in Chihuahua for which they received $150 each. Brown had gone to California when Glanton and his associates were murdered by the Indians at Yuma. It is not certain when he returned to Arizona, probably about the year 1858. He was a saloon man and a gambler, a dead shot and it is said that he had several notches in his gun. He was at Tucson at the time of the Confederate invasion and remained there after the Confederates left. When the California Column arrived he was given a monopoly for the selling of liquor and gambling in Tucson by Colonel West. From there Brown went to the Mesilla Valley where he married a Mexican woman of good family and settled permanently in Tucson about the year 1864 or 1865. He was very prosperous in his saloon business, his saloon becoming the popular resort of all classes when the prospectors, miners and adventurers began to flow into the southern part of Arizona. He brought into the Territory the first sewing machine, which was a great curiosity to the Mexican inhabitants of Arizona and Sonora. Upon the birth of his first son he sent to St. Louis and brought in a baby carriage, an unheard of thing at that time in Arizona. In 1867 or 68 he built Congress Hall in Tucson in which the first legislature held at Tucson was convened. The saloon had floors of wood, the lumber for which was hauled from Santa Fe and cost $500 a thousand. The locks on the doors cost $12 each and all other material in like proportion. For a long time it stood as the best building in southern Arizona.

In his gambling hall and liquor saloon, Brown had a mint, but it went almost as fast as made. He was very generous to his friends and he managed in this way to squander a fortune. He was also, always staking men for prospecting which seldom proves a lucrative venture. He died a few years ago, leaving no property whatsoever.

Source: History of Arizona, Vol II, Thomas E. Farish, 1915, pg 185

Colin Cameron, Sr.

Colin Cameron was born in Danville Pennsylvania on the 10th of December 1849, and was a son of Simon and Elizabeth (Leinbach) Cameron. In the paternal line the family is descended from Highland Scotch stock and has furnished not only to Pennsylvania but to the American nation, some of its notable public men. This branch of the family has been twice represented in the U.S. cabinet by General Simon Cameron and his son, James Donald Cameron--close relatives of Simon Cameron who was the father of the subject of this sketch. General Simon Cameron was secretary of war under President Lincoln, until 1862 when he became U.S. minister to Russia. He was also for many years a member of the U.S. Senate from Pennsylvania. James Donald Cameron was secretary of war under President Grant. He resigned from the cabinet in 1877 and in that year was elected U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, succeeding his father, General Simon Cameron.

The early years of Colin Cameron Sr. were passed in a home of comfortable circumstances and amid an environment conducive to the development of high principles. He completed his education at Lafayette College and turned his attention to business affairs and for a time was manager of the estate of G. Dawson Coleman of Lancaster Pennsylvania. He continued to reside in his native state until 1882 when he and his brother Brewster came to Arizona, where they purchased a large tract of land known as the San Rafael grant. Their holding extended for miles in every direction but its boundaries had not then been established and for ten years the question of the lines of their grant was fought out in the courts. The squatters who had settled on the land claimed by the Cameron's were very hostile in their attitude toward the brothers and there was hardly a day for a long period but brought threats of bodily injury or death to them. At last the dispute was settled and the court gave them legal possession of a large portion of the tract. They engaged in the cattle business when they first located in Arizona, maintaining for many years one of the largest outfits on the southwestern range.

Their early experiences were most difficult and discouraging, as while engaged in fighting for the title to their land, they suffered large losses from their herds from cattle rustlers and thieves. With the sharp enforcement of the law, these marauders were gradually stamped out and conditions became more favorable for the cattle industry. For several years Colin Cameron sent his cattle to the live stock exhibits at Kansas City and he became recognized as one of the authorities on Hereford cattle. He was a prominent member of the National Live Stock Association. He worked tirelessly in his efforts to improve the conditions to improve the stock industry but met with little encouragement for many years. When appointed chairman of the Arizona Cattle Sanitary Board the stock laws of the state were very crude but at his own expense he had a set of laws drafted which contained the best sections from stock laws of various western states. Several years prior to his death, Mr. Cameron sold his ranch and removed to Tucson where he erected a beautiful residence called Lochaber on Franklin Street and lived there until his death on March 6, 1911.

On March 15, 1877 Mr. Cameron married Miss Alice F. Smith, also a native of Pennsylvania and to them were born four children: Colin Jr. of Tucson; Mary C., the wife of Walter Wakefield of Tucson; Jean C., wife of Leland D. Adams of Weedon Canada and Alice F. Cameron II.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 804

Meade Clyne

Dr. Meade Clyne, now a physician of Tucson, was born on the 30th day of April 1882, in Joliet, Illinois, of which city his parents, John T. and Anna (McCloskey) Clyne, are still residents. Both are natives of New York state. The Doctor passed his boyhood and youth in Joliet and is indebted to its public schools for his early education. After his graduation from high school he matriculated in the medical college of the Northwestern University at Chicago and was graduated from that institution with the class of 1907. An excellent student, he made notable progress in his work and was held in high regard by members of the faculty. Immediately following his graduation he was appointed intern at Wesley Hospital, Chicago, where he remained for two years, and the practical experience thus acquired, together with his thorough preparation, well qualified him to begin his independent career on his return to Joliet, where he maintained an office for one year.

Believing that the southwest afforded better opportunities, Dr. Clyne came to Tucson in 1910 and has since successfully engaged in practice in this city. A fine mind, independent and decisive habits of thought make him a power in the sickroom. For three years he maintained an office alone but at the end of that time he and three other physicians purchased what was then known as the Rogers Hospital, but now the Arizona Hospital of which he is one of the directors. In 1911 and 1912 he served as secretary of the Pima County Medical Society and was honored with the presidency of that organization in 1914.

On the 28th of March 1910 Dr. Clyde was united in marriage to Miss Alice Budlong, a native of Chicago.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 617

William Coberly

William B. Coberly is regarded as one of the progressive young business men of Tucson. He was born in Denver Colorado, on the 9th of November 1883 and is a son of William D. and Florence (Bayley) Coberly. The father was one of the pioneers of Colorado, having located there in 1857. He met with success in his undertakings and subsequently acquired extensive interests in that state and in Arizona. Both he and his wife are now residents of Hollywood California.

During the childhood of William B. Coberly the family removed to Missouri where he was reared and educated also attending the Throop Polytechnic Institute of Pasadena California. In 1903 he came to Arizona to assume the management of the La Osa Cattle Company of which W.D. Coberly was president and Frank H. Hereford secretary. In 1907 William B. Coberly was made the treasurer. This was a close corporation and conducted in the southern part of Arizona. It was splendidly equipped and was supplied with all of the facilities and conveniences found upon the modern cattle ranch of the present day. Despite the fact that he was only twenty years of age when he took over the management Mr. Coberly was fully qualified for the duties he assumed. The company sold the ranch in the spring of 1915 but Mr. Coberly is still the owner of property in Tucson and is now anticipating again entering the cattle business.

In 1907 Mr. Coberly was married to Miss Winifred Wheeler, a native of Tucson and a daughter of C.C. and Kate (Allison) Wheeler. The father, a native of Wisconsin, came to Arizona in 1881 and here followed merchandising as the senior member of the firm of Wheeler and Perry. His wife is a native of California and they were married in Tucson in 1885. They still make their home in that city. Mr. and Mrs. Coberly have become the parents of three children: William B. Jr., Margaret and Charles Wheeler.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Charles Connell

Charles T. Connell, the present efficient City Recorder, is a man well known in this part of the territory and one whose push and energy and progressive and advanced ideas have brought him prominently before the public. He was born in Mount Vernon, Iowa, January 21, 1859 and is the son of Peter D. and Mary M. (Safely) Connell, natives of Ohio and New York respectively and of Scotch Irish origin. Charles T. received his education in the Mount Pleasant Military Academy and Sing Sing, New York, it being his intention to enter West Point. The trend of events, however, changed his course and in 1880 he accepted an appointment under Major Powell to take the first census of Apache Indians that year. He accordingly came West and the year following was appointed to the post of Indian trader at San Carlos, at which place he remained two years. Since that time, 1883, he has been engaged in mining throughout the Territory, and has adopted that as his business. On the death of City Recorder Judd, Mr. Connell was appointed by the city council to the vacant position and his conduct of the office was such that later he was elected to the position for another term by one of the largest majorities on the ticket.

All Mr. Connell's interests are centered in and around Tucson and every dollar he earns is put into the ground in quest of the precious metals. He has thus acquired considerable interest in several mining camps in this region. He is chairman of the Republican Central Committee of Pima County and during 1884 and 1885 he was deputy U.S. Marshal under Z.L. Tidball. Mr. Connell was superintendent of the Eagle Golden Mining Company at Saginaw Camp, nine miles southerwst of Tucson and he is at present police judge in the city of Tucson.

On the 20th of May, 1882 Mr. Connell married Miss Susan A. Moore in Globe, daughter of James A. Moore, an old pioneer stage man of Arizona. Mrs. Connell died February 20, 1895. This union resulted in the birth of three children: Frances S., first white child born at San Carlos, March 11, 1883; Henrietta F., born September 23, 1885 and Robert Moore, born July 4, 1893.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

William Cooper

Judge William F. Cooper has the distinction not only of being the first judge of the superior court of Pima County but was also the first superior judge sworn in after the admission of the state.

Judge Cooper is a native of Wayne County, Indiana, born August 6, 1858 and to the public school system of that state he is indebted for his early educational opportunities. He was graduated from the high school at Richmond Indiana and afterward entered the Peekskill Military Academy at Peekskill New York, there completing the classical course by graduation in June 1877. At the early age of eight years he began work during his school vacations in a country newspaper office and served his apprenticeship as a printer, and in after years worked as a compositor on many of the lading daily papers of the United States. He had been a member of the Typographical Union since 1884. He had determined however to make the practice of law his life work and after his graduation returned to Richmond, Indian where he began his reading in the office and under the preceptorship of Judge W.A. Peele. As the result of too close application to his studies he suffered a very severe physical breakdown and was compelled in the latter part of 1879 to abandon his work and seek health out west. After two or three years service as a cowboy he regained his strength and resumed his studies. He was admitted to the bar of the district court in Arizona in October 1894 and to the supreme court in December of the same year and was licensed to practice before the superior court of Los Angeles in 1895.

Judge Cooper first visited the Pacific coast in 1879 but returned to the east in 1884 and did not make a permanent settlement in Arizona until 1892. For a time he was at Kingman, in Mohave County and also spent a brief period in Phoenix. He afterward became editor and proprietor of the Florence Tribune at Florence Arizona and in 1896 removed to Tucson where he continued his connection with journalism as editor of the Tucson Citizen, remaining in that connection until March 1897, when he became a stenographer in the office of S.M. Franklin. It was in the same year that he was appointed secretary of the territorial board of equalization which position he acceptably filled during the administration of Governor McCord. In 1898 he was elected district attorney of Pima County being the first republican ever chosen for that office in the county. So creditable was the record which he made during his first term that he was reelected and continued in the position for four years. In the latter part of 1903 he went to Nogales where he continued in law practice for one year as a partner of Frank J. Duffy. In 1904 he returned to Tucson and was appointed court reporter by Judge Davis, was reappointed by Judge John H. Campbell and continued in that position for five years. In 1909 he was elected probate judge on the republican ticket and in 1911 he was elected the first judge of the superior court of Pima County.

In 1894 Judge Cooper was married to Miss Elizabeth A. Douglass, a native of Arizona and a daughter of James s. and Melquaides (Elias) Douglass, the former a Scotchman. To Judge and Mrs. Cooper have been born six children: John D., Vida E., Orville W., Xulla M., William F. Jr. and Mary Eileen.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Benjamin Daniels

To say that Benjamin Franklin Daniels is interested in mining and is winning success in the brokerage business in Tucson is to give but a very incomplete idea of his character and accomplishments. His life has been fraught with many adventures and even dangerous phases and has been closely connected with some characteristic aspects of frontier development. He is a veteran of the Spanish American war, has been a cowboy and Indian fighter and buffalo hunter andas Marshal in various western towns has proven his coolness, his courage and his ability.

Born on the 4th of November 1852, Mr. Daniels is a native of Illinois and in that state was reared to the age of elevenyears. His parents were Aaron and Mariah (Sanders) Daniels, natives of Virginia and Kentucky. They were married in the former state, removed to Ohio and afterward to Illinois. The mother and six children, two sons and four daughters, died of cholera within two days and Benjamin F. Daniels, then a baby was left for dead and his coffin was ordered but a neighbor found him and gave him a brandy which resuscitated him. The father survived the cholera scourge, married again and removed to Kansas when his son Benjamin was eleven years of age, spending the remaining days in that state.

It was in the year 1863 that Benjamin became a resident of Kansas. When he was sixteen years of age he went to Texas, running cattle on the range and while in that state he had trouble with the Indians and met the usual experiences of cowboy life. He engaged in hunting buffalo in the west. At Dodge City Kansas, he accepted the position of marshal of the town, succeeding two incumbents who had been killed in riots. While serving in that capacity in 1883, at which time Dodge City was one of the toughest towns in the west, a fire was started in the back end of one of the many saloons of the place and the rising wind caused it to spread over the whole block so that the businessmen of that and adjacent blocks began carrying their goods out of the buildings and piling them in the streets in order to save wheat they could. It became Mr. Daniels' duty as Marshal to hire extra policemen sworn in in order to protect these goods. When the fire was raging in its greatest fury one of the policemen approached Mr. Daniels and told him that a certain man was helping himself to whatever he wanted and when asked as to why he did not arrest the man, the reply was that he was a Texas killer and the policeman was afraid to tackle him. Just then he said, "There he is now," and they saw a man filing his pockets with candy from a showcase. Mr. Daniels walked up to him and asked him what he was doing and the man replied that he was taking some candy.

Mr. Daniels gave him a very unpleasant lecture and told him to stay away and that if he was caught around there anymore he would be locked up. An hour later a policeman reported, telling Mr. Daniels to be more careful, that the Texan had a six shooter strapped on him and was making some bad talk. Mr. Daniels started for the man, walked up to him, took his gun away and locked him in the city jail. It was the fall of the year and the weather was cold. The jail was rudely built and there was no stove in it. Before long two of the mans friends approached Mr. Daniels and offered to go on his bond if the Texas should be let out. Mr. Daniels replied that if they would put up fifty dollars for his appearance the next morning at nine o'clock and promise that they would take him home and keep him there until morning he would be released. The men consented and the next morning they appeared with the prisoner, whereupon Mr. Daniels charged him with carrying concealed weapons and turned the money that had been put up for his bond over to the judge.

The man pleaded guilty and the Judge fined him fifty dollars and costs, which he paid without a murmur but immediately said, "Mr. Marshall, if you will lay off your gun I will show you how quick I can lick you," whereupon the Marshall threw his six shooter across the table to the judge and jumped over the railing after the Texas, whereupon ensued a hot fight in which the stove was thrown over and furniture broken, while the judge stood on top of his table swinging the six shooter over his head and demanding peace in the courtroom. Finally Mr. Daniels'opponent cried enough and after Mr. Daniels asked the man if he was satisfied that he couldn't whip him and was answered in the affirmative, he turned to the judge and complained on himself for disturbing the peace and he was fined twenty five dollars. He then made complaint against his opponent for the same offense and the man was fined an equal amount. Afterward Mr. Daniels' fine was remitted.

The Texan remained in Dodge city for a number of months but Mr. Daniels had no more trouble with him, having succeeded in making him a fairly law abiding citizen. Other experiences of a sinister nature constituted events and incidents in the life of Mr. Daniels. For a short time he was deputy sheriff of Bent Count Colorado, and later served as marshal at Gutherie Oklahoma holding the office during the time when twenty five thousand homeseekers made a rush for government lands. It was estimated that twenty five thousand people landed in Guthrie alone the first day. He afterward returned to Colorado where he spent two years in Cripple Creek acting as marshal and also becoming connected with mining interests.

The outbreak of the Spanish American War found Mr. Daniels in Texas and from San Antonio he joined Troop K of the1st United States Cavalry, known as the Rough Riders and commanded by Col. Theodore Roosevelt. He went to Cuba, saw much active service, taking part in various hotly contested battles and returned home uninjured with a good military record after which he was mustered out with his command. Mr. Daniels tells an interesting incident in connection with his war service. while his troop was in camp at San Antonio numbers were given to each of the company but no one could be found who would accept No. 13. Mr. Daniels took the number and out of the twenty men in the company he was the only one not killed, crippled or injured in battle.

After the close of the war, Mr. Daniels went to Kansas City Missouri where he worked for the Wells Fargo Express Company in the capacity of guard over big shipments of money. In 1899 he resigned and came to Arizona, where he engaged in mining until appointed to the position of superintendent of the territorial prison at Yuma. After the election of his former commander, Col.. Roosevelt to the Presidency, Mr. Daniels was appointed U.S. Marshal forthe territory of Arizona and served in that capacity for four years and two months. Following the election of William Taft he was removed from office and given a position at the Menominee Indians Reservations which is forty miles west of Green Bay Wisconsin. After a short time, he resigned and again came to Arizona, taking up residence in Tucson, where he has since remained.

On the 15th of July 1908 Mr. Daniels married Mrs. Seayrs, a native of Indiana who by a former marriage had a daughter, Mary Louise who died March 12, 1915. Mrs. Daniels engaged in teaching school before her marriage to Mr. Daniels and has always been interested in educational work.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Alfredo Durazo, Sr.

Alfredo J. Durazo, Sr. who is now actively engaged in the operation of his ranch near the Tucson Farms was born in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico in 1857 and came to Tucson in October 1866. Here he has since spent the greater part of his time, though for two years, from 1868 until 1870 he again lived in Mexico. For about a year he was in the employ of L. Zeckendorf and Company, pioneer merchants of Tucson after which he went to Tubac and engaged in farming for three years, following which he freighted from Yuma to Tucson for seven years. During that time he had some rather exciting experiences with the Indians. Diligent and thrifty he accumulated a small capital and about 1877 purchased a ranch twenty five miles from Tucson where on he engaged in the cattle business for eighteen years with good success. In 1896 he took up his residence in Tucson in order to give his children better education advantages and here he has since made his home. Soon after his removal to the city he opened a modern meat market on Meyers Street, which he conducted with the assistance of his eldest son, Alfredo J. Jr until 1915 when he retired from that business and has since devoted his attention to general farming.

In 1873 Mr. Durazo married Miss Eloisa Herrera, a daughter of Pedro Herrera, one of the pioneers of Arizona, who for some years was engaged in ranching and cattle raising at Tubac. He passed away in 1868. To Mr. and Mrs. Durazo were born six children, namely: Sarah, now Mrs. Shindel; Alfredo J., Jr; Sophy; Genevieve; Pedro; and Toila. The wife and mother is now deceased.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 637

John Estill

John W. Estill is prominent in public life in Pima County, serving as the first county supervisor under the state laws and he is also well known in business circles of Tucson as the organizer of the Arizona Lumber and Mill Company.

He was born in Morris County New Jersey, July 28, 1861 and at eleven years of age went to Ohio where he lived upon a farm for six years. At the end of that time he removed to Columbus Ohio and there engaged as a manufacturer of brooms. He later became manager of the Wooden Willoware Manufacturing Company and by his progressive business methods and executive ability made it a profitable business enterprise.

Mr. Estill took up his residence in Arizona in 1898 and in 1900 became connected with business interests of Oracle as a general merchant. He also acted as postmaster and was well and favorably known in that locality where he remained for six years, coming to Tucson in 1906. Here he organized the Arizona Lumber and Mill Company and is still connected with the concern which under his able management has become one of the large and representative industries of the day.

In 1887 Mr. Estill married Miss Ella R. Howard, a native of Columbus Ohio and they have become the parents of threechildren: Howard W, a graduate of the University of Arizona and how assistant in chemistry in that institution; Mary H. and Edward, both sophomores at the same university.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Frederick Fleishman

Frederick Fleishman, who since 1881 has been engaged in the drug business in Tucson, was born in Humboldt County, California, December 27, 1857, a son of H.C. Fleishman. He acquired his education in the public schools of that state and New York and began his business career by engaging in the drug trade in Los Angeles. He remained in that city until 1880, when he came to Tucson, where he has since made his home. He opened a drug store in this city and has built up an extensive business, receiving a very liberal patronage, which is accorded him in recognition of his honorable business principles, his earnest desire to please his patrons and his reasonable prices.

Mr. Fleishman is president of the State Board of Pharmacy, a position which indicates something of his high standing among his professional brethren and is also vice president of the Citizens Building and Loan Assc. and a director in the Merchants Bank and Trust Company and the Arizona National Bank.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, pg 594

Merrill Freeman

From pioneer times to the present day Merrill P. Freeman has been closely associated with the history of Tucson and of Arizona where he has been a potent factor in the business, politics and education of the state.

Dr. Freeman was born in Ohio in February 1844 but was only three years of age when the family removed to Iowa and only eight when a start was made across the plains with ox teams. There as hard training for him on the way, for everyone, however young had a part of the burden to bear and to him was assigned the task of assisting in driving the loose cattle, which he did till towards the end of the journey, when his pony was stolen by Indians. Five months were required to complete the journey to California. There only Indian boys were available as companions and playmates. In 1857 he returned to the east by the Isthmus route and completed a four year academic course. Then the plains again were crossed by ox team and this time regular guard duty against the Indians formed a part of his work for the tedious five months of travel.

He became a resident of Nevada in 1862 and in that state devoted about eighteen years to banking and mining. He also acted as agent at various places for the Wells Fargo Express Company and at the time of the completion of the Central Pacific Railroad, in 1869 was also in charge of the western terminus of its overland stage line. Again and again he was called upon to fill public office, acting as regent of the University of Nevada, receiver of the U.S. Land Office, postmaster, county treasurer and chairman of the republican central committee of his county.

During the winter of 1880-81 Dr. Freeman came to Arizona to look after mining interests and established his home in Tucson. There he has since remained. In 1884 he was appointed postmaster of Tucson. This office he resigned in 1887 to become cashier of the Bank of D. Henderson. This institution after a number of changes is now perpetuated in the Consolidated National Bank of Tucson. In 1888 he left the bank, later to establish the Santa Cruz Valley Bank, now the Arizona Bank. Still later he become connected again with the Consolidated National Bank as its president but as a result of ill health he resigned in 1911.

Tucson's public library was started more than thirty years ago by Dr. Freeman's gift of one hundred volumes. From him also came the start of the library of the Old Pueblo Club of Tucson.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Alfred Goldschmidt

Alfred J. Goldschmidt, pioneer business man of Arizona and now a force in industrial circles of Tucson as vice president and manager of the Eagle milling Company, was born in Hamburg, Germany in October 1857. He acquired his education in the public schools of his native city, attending school until he was fifteen years of age, after which he became identified with the mercantile business.

He came to the United States in 1879 and reached Arizona in April of the same year. He was one of the pioneers of this territory, coming here before a railroad was constructed through and accomplishing the last thirty six ours of the journey by stage, traveling in this way from Gila Bend to Tucson. His first employment in the latter city was with his brother-in-law, J.S. Mansfeld, a pioneer news dealer in Arizona, who at that time was conducting a store in Tucson. Their association continued for about seven years, after which Mr. Goldschmidt went to the silver mining camps and spent two years there, returning to Tucson in 1886. The next six months were spent in El Paso, Texas and then, after a short residence in Tucson, he went to Los Angeles, where from 1887 to 1890 he engaged in the mercantile business.

Again returning to Tucson in the latter year, he followed the same occupation until 1896, when he again went to Los Angeles where he engaged in various pursuits for three years. He made his final location in Tucson in 1899 and in that year became connected with his brother Leo in the Eagle Milling Company of which he is now vice president.

In 1910 Mr. Goldschmidt married Miss Louise Harris of Chicago Illinois and both are well and favorably known in Tucson.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 596

Leo Goldschmidt

Leo Goldschmidt is president of the Eagle Flour Milling Company of Tucson and has been connected with various other business concerns that have contributed to the material development and upbuilding of the state. He as born in Hamburg, Germany, September 15, 1852, a son of Samuel H. and Frederika (Lichtenhein) Goldschmidt. The father was engaged in the banking business as manager of the Hamburg branch of the Copenhagen Bank but during the financial crisis of 1857 the bank failed after which he entered into active connection with manufacturing interests in Hamburg. He passed away in 1884 at the age of eighty four years while his wife died in 1878 at the age of sixty four years. In their family were four sons and four daughters of whom seven are living and all came to America. Gertrude the eldest, is the widow of William Florsheim and is now making her home with her brother Leo in Tucson. Matilda became the wife of Aaron Zeckendorf, a pioneer resident of Tucson and founder of the firm of L. Zeckendorf and Company. Mr. Zeckendorf died in Sante Fe New Mexico since which time his widow has returned to Hamburg Germany where she now makes her home. Henry S. is a practicing attorney of Chicago. Eva is the widow of J.S. Mansfield, who conducted the pioneer news depot of Tucson in which city she is still living. Adolf who for several years was associated with his brother Leo in business died in the year 1899. Leo is the next of the family. Helen became the wife of M. Leventhal and resides in Los Angeles in California. Alfred J. completes the family.

Leo Goldschmidt spent his youthful days in Hamburg Germany and completed his education in the high school of that city. He was eighteen when attracted by the opportunities of the new world, he crossed the Atlantic and made his way directly to Sante Fe New Mexico where he was connected with the mercantile house of Solomon Spiegelberg until 1878 when he removed to Tucson. In the meantime he had carefully saved his earnings until his economy and industry had enabled him to carry out his cherished plan of embarking in business on his own account and following his removal to Tucson he opened a furniture store, which he successfully conducted for ten years, making it one of the important mercantile enterprises of the city. On the expiration of that period he organized the Eagle Flour Milling Company of which he is still the president. He was practically the pioneer in this line of work in southern Arizona for he erected the first modern flour mill in Tucson. He is also a director of the Consolidated National Bank of Tucson and has been connected with various other financial and industrial enterprises, now being president of the Gila Valley Milling Company at Safford.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

A. J. Halbert

There is not a more prominent citizen and official in Pima County, Arizona than A. J. Halbert who was born in St. Francis County, Arkansas, July 2, 1842. He is at present clerk of the District Court of Pima County and his conduct of the affairs of that office has been such as to commend him to the good opinion of the general public, irrespective of party affiliation. His father, James M. Halbert, was a successful farmer and a prominent politician, holding for a number of years the office of Sheriff of St. Francis County. He died with cholera in 1849. In Mississippi, opposite Helena, Arkansas, our subject was left motherless at the age of sixteen months and his father died when he was but seven years old. From that time on until he was able to look out for himself, young Halbert had the usual hard luck of an orphan. He had limited chances for an education and was obliged to take his lace among the Negroes in the cotton field until the war broke out. At the fist call for troops, in 1861, he enlisted in Colonel Marmaduke's Regiment, Hindman's Brigade and was wounded in the battle of Shiloh the April following, a ball passing through his thigh on the evening of the seventh. He was left on the battle field but later was taken to the field hospital, where he remained about three weeks. There on account of his wound he was discharged from that branch of service and in the fall of that year re-enlisted in Dobbin's Regiment of Arkansas Cavalry, with which he remained until cessation of hostilities. He was wounded the second time near Helena, Arkansas and still again at Fayetteville, Ark. on Price's last raid. However, these wounds did not prevent him from again enlisting and he joined his regiment but did not surrender with the rest of the company. Instead he started out to join General Kirby Smith, but later surrendered and made his way to Arkansas where he was engaged in merchandising for a short time. He held the rank of sergeant during the war and was a brave and faithful soldier.

In the year 1870 he went to California and located in Kern County where he tilled the soil, and where he was later elected Supervisor of that county, serving until 1879. He then came to Arizona and located at Tempe, where he still makes his home. Mr. Halbert is actively engaged in farming, is the owner of a small ranch and also some town property. He was Sheriff of Maricopa County one term, also Supervisor one term and under Judge Bethune was made district clerk of Pima County, August 1894 which position he occupies at the present time.

Mr. Halbert was first married to Miss Nannie Calvert who died in 1876. Three children were born to them, only one now living--Nettie Miller. In the year 1888 Mr. Halbert married Miss Emma Criley and they have three children: Annie Walker, A.J. Jr. and Nina L.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

John Heidel

John Heidel, owner of the Heidel Hotel and other valuable property of Tucson, which city he has been a resident for the past fourteen years, was born and reared in St. Louis, Missouri. He is a son of Conrad and Regina (Klingler) Heidel, who came from Germany, when young and were married in the United States, settling in St. Louis, Missouri. The father was a horseman, dealing in draft horses.

Upon the completion of his education in the schools of St. Louis, John Heidel immediately began qualifying for a business career and was for some years employed in a wholesale grocery in his native city, where he resided until 1898. In the fall of that year he came to Tucson and engaged in the liquor business until 1907. As his circumstances permitted he invested in local real estate and now owns fifteen flats in Tucson which he is renting to good advantage. In 1907 her erected the Heidel Hotel, which is one of the most substantially constructed and best equipped buildings in the city. It is the newest and most thoroughly modern hotel in Tucson and was first opened for business in February 1908. Mr. Heidel conducted it with very good success until November 1, 1910, since which time he has leased it. He has met with unqualified success in the development of his interests here and is devoting his entire attention to the management of his property. He is interested in the Gila Land and Cattle Company as director and treasurer; owns stock in several corporations and is deeply interested in the Arizona Fire Insurance Company.

Mr. Heidel has been married twice. His first wife, who is now deceased was Miss Anna Weider of St. Louis, and to them were born six children: Fred, Charles J., Carrie, Mamie, Lulu and Harry. The lady who now bears his name was in her maidenhood Miss Emily Meel and she too is from St. Louis. To Mr. Heidel and his second wife there has been born one daughter, Jeannetta. The family home is located on University Avenue where Mr. Heidel has erected a beautiful modern residence.

Source: Arizona, the Youngest State, pg 584

Harry Heighton

One of Tucson's best known business men is Harry E. Heighton, who is conducting a successful real estate and insurance business and is also noted for his deep interest in matters relating to the community welfare.

He was born in Marshalltown Iowa on the 7th day of October 1867, and is a son of John Henry and Sarah (Cleaver) Heighton, the former of whom was a painter and carriage manufacturer. Harry E. Heighton attended the public schools of his native state and in July 1883, before he was sixteen years of age, he went to California. He located first in Santa Ana, where two years later, he engaged in the hardware business, which he carried on until March 1893, when he went to Phoenix. There he entered the employ of the hardware and implement firm of Henry E. Kemp and Company and when that concern failed he was appointed receiver for it. At that time he gave the largest personal bond in Maricopa County, it being placed at seventy five thousand dollars, which was signed by prominent Phoenix business men. In 1896 he entered he employ of Talbot and Hubbard, with whom he remained for two years, and then, in 1898 he engaged in writing life insurance throughout the state, as the representative of the New York Life Insurance Company.

On January 1, 1904 he entered into a partnership with A.M. Franklin, under the firm name of Franklin and Heighton, as real estate and insurance dealers. They were successful and the partnership was continued until July 1, 1925, since which date Mr. Heighton has been alone, having bought Mr. Franklin's interest in the business. He is also the secretary and treasurer of the Citizens Building and Loan Association. In 1921 Mr. Heighton served as president of the Chamber of Commerce and during that year inaugurated two very important organizations, the Community Chest and the Tucson sunshine Climate Club, both of which have done and are still doing effective and appreciated work for the community.

On January 2, 1894 Mr. Heighton was united in marriage to Miss Frances L. Clardy of St. Louis Missouri who died in 1927. To this union was born a daughter, Mrs. Dorothy Heighton Monroe, who lives in Tucson and with whom Mr. Heighton now makes his home.

He is a member of Tucson Lodge No. 285, BPOE of which he is a past exalted ruler; is a charter member of the Kiwanis Club of which he is treasurer; the Old Pueblo Club, the Tucson Golf and Country Club. He is regarded as an expert accountant and in 1901 he installed a system of audit and collection for the city which was in constant use for twenty years. He is a man of forceful individuality , sterling character and agreeable manner and during his residence here his integrity has never been questioned and he stands today among the leading business men of this city.

Source: History of Arizona, pg. 179

Henry Buehman

Henry H. Buehman was a pioneer in Tucson since 1874. He was born in Breman Germany, May 14, 1851, where he received a public school education. In his fifteenth year he became an apprentice in the photograph business and mastered the art in all of its details. In June 1868 he boarded a steamer for San Francisco via the Isthmus of Panama. After a residence of one year in San Francisco, being in the employ of a firm of photographers, Mr. Buehman determined to be his own master and opened up an establishment in Visalia California. After two years residence he traveled over large portions of California, Nevada and Utah and reached Prescott early in July 1874. Here equipping himself with spring wagon and span of mules, Mr. Buehman started on a long trip to Mexico but reaching Tucson he abandoned the trip to Mexico and settled down to business in the old Pueblo. He purchased a lot on Congress Street, adjoining the site now occupied by the Arizona National Bank, and proceeded to erect an adobe building, consisting of three suites of rooms for residence purposes.

In October 1882 Mr. Buehman married Miss Estelle Morehouse of Portland Michigan. He served on the board of school trustees, the board of trustees of the Territorial Reform School at Benson and in 1894 was elected mayor of Tucson serving two terms.

An artist by profession he was truly that in spirit. Children's pictures were his specialty and delight and his love and tact wit the little ones were such that he was successful in winning over the most obstinate subjects for portraiture.

This truly noble life, for he was universally beloved by all who knew him came to its close from pneumonia on December 19, 1912. Mr. Buehman accumulated considerable property being in the cattle business for several years, his ranch being located in the foothills of the Catalina's, eight miles from San Pedro. He left his wife comfortably provided for and two promising sons, Willis and Albert. Willis, the elder son has been for several years accountant and cashier of the El Tivo Copper Company at Silver Bell with offices in New York and Philadelphia. Albert, the younger, though a mining man, having graduated from the Michigan College of Mines with a degree in mining engineering, took up and carried on his father's business, accomplishing the art of photography.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, page 830

Frank Hereford

Frank H. Hereford is a native of California, born in Sacramento, November 21, 1861 and the son of Hon. Benjamin H. and Mary (Jewell) Hereford, who were natives of Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. Hereford emigrated westward with their parents when children and were subsequently married in California. Benjamin H. Hereford was a talented and brilliant lawyer and practiced his profession to some extent in California. After removing with his family to Virginia City, Nevada, he then became clerk of the court and held that office one term. from there he removed to Hamilton, Nevada, was elected clerk and recorder and afterwards clerk of the court, but subsequently removed to Pioche City, Nevada, where he was under sheriff for a year. Returning to Virginia City, Nevada, he became secretary of the Pacific Mining and Milling Company which position he filled two years. In 1875 he came to Tucson and here practiced law until his death in 1890. He held the office of District Attorney for three terms and was a member of the House of Representatives one term. His wife died in Virginia City, Nevada in 1866. To their union was born but one child, Frank H., who secured a good practical education in the public schools and later attended McClure's Academy in California, Santa Clara College and finished in the University of Pacific at San Jose.

In 1877 he came to Tucson and began the study of law but one year later entered the mercantile establishment of Lord and Williams, remaining with them two years. From there he went to Tombstone and became general agent for the firm of J.D. Kiner and Company, stage lines, with which firm he continued until twenty one years old. Afterward he went to Prescott Arizona, then the capital of Arizona, and became the private secretary of F.A. Tritle, Governor of Arizona and for two years held the office of private secretary though much of his time was given to mining matters in which Governor Tritle was largely interested.

After this he spent a few months traveling in Old Mexico and the East; and later became Deputy County Clerk of Pima County, which office he had the entire charge of for one year. Refreshing his mind in his law studies, he was admitted to the bar July 8, 1886 and formed a partnership with T.S. Stiles, who was afterward elected to the Supreme Bench of the State of Washington. Following this Mr. Hereford was associated with his father in the practice until the latter's death, having acted as deputy district attorney during his father's term. On the 7th of July 1890 he was appointed to succeed his father in the office of district attorney and at the expiration of his term resumed the practice of law. On the 12th of May 1891 he was elected a delegate to the constitutional convention and on the 8th of November 1892, was elected District Attorney of Pima County and at the expiration of his term returned to the private practice of law. For one year he was attorney for the Southern Pacific Railroad and has represented the San Pedro Cattle Company, the San Simon Cattle Company, the Canada Del Oro Mines Ltd. of London; Tucson Mining and Smelting and numerous other corporations. He is engaged quite extensively in mining. For four years he was director in the Consolidated National Bank of Tucson and is still a stockholder.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Joseph Hopley

Joseph Sexton Hopley was born in Ireland October 24, 1851. He came to America at the age of fourteen and lived in Philadelphia until he was eighteen. In December 1869 he enlisted in the U.s. regular army and was assigned to the Fourth United States Cavalry and in the following year he was sent to Texas. He served in various parts of the country for fifteen years under Colonel R.S. McKenzie and rose to the rank of first sergeant of his troop. He took part in Indian wars throughout the west and became familiar with frontier life in this section where he often rode for two hundred without seeing a single habitation. In 1880 Mr. Hopley's duties brought him to Arizona and four years later he made a permanent location in the state. He received his honorable discharge from the army in 1885 at Fort Lowell and he began his business career as a dairy farmer operating a farm near that place. He later ranched in Pantano, thirty miles east of Tucson, where he was interested in cattle ranching and for eight years he also carried the mail between Pantano and Greaterville operating a mail stage and express line.

In 1898 Mr. Hopley abandoned stock raising by reason of drought and he lost nearly five hundred head of cattle. He then came to Tucson where from 1899 to 1900 he served as deputy sheriff under Mr. Wakefield. He was afterward for eight years a member of the city police department and during that time was elected for four terms to the office of city marshal. In 1908 he became under sheriff with John Nelson and served six years. He is now serving as chief probation officer of Pima County.

Mr. Hopley married Mrs. Clara H. Thayer and to them has been born one daughter, Lucy May who is now attending high school.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Ira Huffman

Dr. Ira Erven Huffman, mayor of Tucson and one of the most able and prominent physicians and surgeons in Pima County was born in Ripley County Indiana, March 13, 1870. He acquired his early education in the public schools and received his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Drake University of Des Moines, Iowa being a member of the class of 1901. After graduation he located in Paton Iowa and was made district physician of Greene County. The years between 1902 and 1906 he spent in Beaver, Utah and there he also came into prominence as city physician. In the latter year he removed to Tucson and has since taken an active interest in professional and public life. He has secured a liberal patronage and is a member of the American Medical Association and of the Arizona State and Pima County Medical Societies. In 1913 Dr. Huffman with seven associates, all physicians, purchased the Rogers Hospital and changed the name to the Arizona Hospital. Each physician has his own special work and they are now able to care for fifteen patients at a time. It is the only hospital within the city limits of Tucson and has been incorporated. There is a training school for nurses in connection with the hospital and six nurses are now employed.

Dr. Huffman was elected mayor of Tucson in December 1910 and reelected in 1912. During his administration streets have been paved and graded, public parks have been improved and the price of electric light reduced.

Dr. Huffman was married September 1, 1910 to Miss Edith Gillmor, a native of Iowa and they have one son, Ira Erven Jr. born December 5, 1912.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 754

Fred Hughes

Fred G. Hughes was born at Cheltenham, England, March 30, 1837 and while a child was brought to the United States by his parents and passed the earlier part of his life in the city of New York, receiving his education in the public schools of that city. At the age of sixteen he left home and struck out for the Golden State and upon his arrival there first went to mining near old Hangtown. After about a year's stay he began prospecting on the Feather, Scott and Klamath Rivers and while in the latter country he had his first taste of Indian War with the Rogue River Indians. In 1857 he returned south and settled at New York Flat, in Yuba County, mining at that place during the summer and winter, and at Rabbit Creek, a camp about thirty miles above there during the spring. In January 1860 in the excitement upon the discovery of the Comstock he struck camp and went to the new El Dorado then known as Washoe. While in that country je joined the noted Ormsby party in their campaign against the Pi Utes. This was a party composed of lawyers, business men, young clerks, etc. who had gone to Washoe in the excitement and who had organized for military operations against Winnemucca and his tribe of pi Ute Indians for having killed two brothers named Williams on the Carson. This expedition was intended to wipe the Indians off the fact of the earth; but out of 103 men composing the party over two thirds were left dead along the banks of the Truckee and among them some of the most noted men of California. This affair is misnamed the "Washoe massacre." It was nothing of the kind. The whites were hunting a fight, got it and got badly whipped. Mr. Hughes afterward joined Jack Hays, the Texas ranger in his campaign against this same tribe, wherein they made short work of them and ended the war. The outbreak of our civil war found him at New York Flats placer mining and a candidate on the Douglas Democratic ticket to represent old Yuba in the Legislature. It was during that political campaign that Lincoln made his first call on California for 1500 men, which was to be known as the California Column. The militia company of which Mr. Hughes was a member was accepted as one of the companies of the column and he immediately withdrew as a candidate for political honors and joined his company to go to the front.

It was with the California Column that he came to Arizona and after serving with it until the end of the war, he determined to make Arizona his future home. His life here is known to almost every one. He crossed the Colorado River in December 1861. At that time not a soul, other than Indians, resided between Tucson and the Colorado River on the west and Tucson and the Rio Grande on the east and aside from the almost abandoned overland road which crossed the territory from east to West, Arizona was virtually a "terra incognita" dominated by the Apache Indians. The few forts in the territory had all been abandoned to the Confederates at the outbreak of the rebellion and they in turn had abandoned them to the Apaches. The overland mail of Wells, Butterfield and Company had been driven off and abandoned to theses same Indians a year before and no attempt had been made to re-establish it. Every tribe in Indians of note in both Arizona and New Mexico were on the warpath. The Apache, the Kiowa, Navajo, Cheyenne and Comanche all had their scalping knives ready to raise the hair of any whites they might encounter. Tucson at that time was a little hamlet in the desert occupied by about half a dozen Americans and a few Mexican families and the town was surrounded by an adobe wall some six or seven feet high to protect its inhabitants from the incursions of the Apaches, who as before said, held complete sway over the whole Territory.

At this time the Confederate troops of General Sibley held possession of the town and the mission of the California Column was to drive the Confederates from both Arizona and New Mexico and re-establish Uncle Sam's authority therein.

It was a strange condition of affairs which confronted both the Union and Confederate troops for while their hands were turned against each other the hands of the Apache were turned against both.

It did not take long to establish Uncle Sam's authority in Arizona and New Mexico. The column occupied Tucson on the 20th day of May 1862 and by the 1st day of August of the same year every town, hamlet, and fort in both Arizona and New Mexico were again under the protection of the U.S. government.

In those days it used to take forty days to get a letter or paper from San Francisco. The battle of Val Verde was fought on the 22nd day of February, 1862, a little over three hundred miles from where the California Column of which Mr. Hughes was a member, was at that time, yet the first news received of that battle was upon their entry into Messillo, New Mexico about the 1st of August. There were some Confederate papers found which had been left behind, giving an account of the battle.

After ridding the country of the Confederates the troops were ordered to turn their attention to the Indians. A portion of the column was ordered against the Apaches and another portion was ordered up the Rio Grande to operate with Kit Carson's regiment against the Navajo. The Navajo at that time were considered the most powerful and wealthy tribe in the West, but in a few months they were subdued and prisoners on the Bosque Redondo reservation in New Mexico.

About this time, a party under an old mountaineer, Joe Walker, had discovered some placer gold mines where the town of Prescott now stands, and the Federals were ordered there for the double purpose of protecting the miners from the Indians and also to prevent them from organizing Confederate Companies in their rear and it was known that all of Capt. Joe Walker's company were in sympathy with the Southern cause.

At this time the Government had appointed civil officers to come out and form a Territorial government for Arizona. These officers were to meet the troops further up the river and were to accompany them to the new El Dorado, and there establish their headquarters. The troops left Fort Craig October 16, 1863 and proceeded to old Fort Wingate in the Navajo country. The new officials failed to arrive and November 17th as the season was growing late, the troops decided to move without them. The expedition was composed of about forty wagons, three fourths of which were ox teams. The winter proved to be severe and December 18th they had reached the base of the San Francisco Mountains. The oxen had been giving out for several days and it had become a necessity to either destroy a portion of the stores or cache them. The latter plan was adopted and Mr. Hughes was left with a dozen men to guard the cache until the expedition could go on to their destination, establish their post and return with relief, which occurred about a month later. The relief expedition brought with them all their mules and the night they arrived the Indians attacked the camp and stampeded every hoof of the stock. The relief party were compelled to retrace their steps on foot to Chio Valley where they had established the post, and they finally brought the ox teams out and relieved the cache guards. Mr. Hughes finally reached Fort Clark, the newly established post about the 1st of March and from then until the close of the war was engaged in scouting and fighting Apaches.

At the close of the war he settled on some land on the Rio Grande just above Fort Craig. The Indians were still very bad, and he found ranching under such difficulties anything but profitable. It was while he was living there the settlers laid off on his land the town of San Martial and he was duly elected the first alcalde of the district.

While serving as alcalde at this place in 1868 the settlers had a fight wit the Apaches at a place called Canada Alamosa, about twenty five miles below Craig, in which the Indians were signally whipped. A few days after this fight Loco one of the Apache chiefs came into San Martial and wanted to make peace. Not having authority to treat with the Indians Mr. Hughes arranged to take him down to Fort Craig the next day, where he could treat with the commander of the post. Loco had brought with him half a dozen squaws who understood the Spanish language which was spoken by a majority of the citizens of San Martial who were Mexicans. As nearly every family had lost some of its members by the hands of these Indians they began to talk about hanging the party of Loco, and the squaws who understood the Spanish language which was spoken by a majority of the citizens of San Martial, who were Mexicans. As nearly every family had lost some of its members by the hands of these Indians they began to talk about hanging the party of Loco, and the squaws understanding their talk, became frightened and fled to the mountains again. The next morning Mr. Hughes took their trail and followed them into the Magdalena Mountains and found some two or three hundred Indians camped there under the afterward noted Chief Victoria. The Indians were surprised to see him ride into their camp alone. To this act is attributed the reason the Indians ever afterward had so much confidence in Mr. Hughes. He had no trouble in making arrangements with them to meet him on the lains near Craig a few days afterward when he took them into the fort and they made a treaty with the commanding officer.

From that time the Apache tribes all over New Mexico and Arizona began to come in and ask for peace and shortly afterward all the tribes except that of Cochise, were on their various reservations. It was not until the fall of 1872 that the whites were able to get that old chief to lay down his arms and partake of Uncle Sam's hospitality.

Mr. Hughes is credited with being instrumental in bringing about the meeting of Cochise and General Howard which resulted in the treaty and setting apart of the Chiracahua reservation for them. Captain Jeffords and Mr. Hughes were placed in charge of them as an independent agency. This was done that they should not be hampered with the red tape of Territorial officials in their endeavors to keep these Indians in peace.

Mr. Hughes remained with these Indians until the winter of 1876 when becoming tired of civilizing Apaches, he left them and went to work at placer mining in the Santa Rita Mountains, now known as Greaterville. While at Greaterivlle mining the Chiricahua Indians broke out again and Mr. Hughes was called upon by the Government to assist in bringing them in and removing them to the San Carlos reservation. Although this was one of the most difficult and dangerous undertakings of his life, he made a complete success of the undertaking, although others who had no more to do with it than the Queen of England claimed and got the credit. Owing to the red tape modus operadi at Washington Mr. Hughes became disgusted and after the close of the Indian war went to mining in the Santa Ritas. The town of Greaterville is the result of one of his discoveries, also the Omega Copper Camp. He has also, in the meantime, held many offices of trust, having been elected four terms as a member of the Territorial Legislative Council and twice as president of that body.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Thomas Hughes

Thomas Hughes was born with the heritage of a good name; his parents, although natives of Wales were for many years honored and respected citizens of this great Republic, yet Mr. Hughes owes the success that has crowned him not to his parents but to his own exertion and to his superior attainments.

He was born in Allegheny City, Allegheny County, Penn., and is mainly self educated. When about eleven years old he went to Kansas, the scene of border warfare at that time, and was a witness of all the trouble between the free state and pro slavery men. For about three years he worked at the machinist's trade with Kimball Brothers of Lawrence, Kansas and then as the Civil War broke out he enlisted as a private in Company D, First Regiment Kansas Volunteers, May 16, 1861. This was Jim Lain's old company and was the first organized in Kansas under the Lincoln call for 75,000 troops. Mr. Hughes served three years and two months with this regiment and was wounded in the right side at Wilson Creek August 10, 1861, but followed the army in its retreat to Rollo and St. Louis, Mo., fearing death if captured. He was in the hospital at Rollo and St. Louis for three months. Mr. Hughes participated in all the campaigns of the Army of the Tennessee, including Donnelson, Fort Henry, Shiloh and two battles of Corinth and campaigned through Central Mississippi in the winter of 1862 and 1863 with Grant and Sherman. During the Siege of Vicksburg he was very severely wounded in the left elbow. He enlisted in Company B., Seventeenth Kansas Volunteers in July 1864, and was mustered in as first sergeant. This regiment was in the campaign against General Price in his last raid in Kansas in the summer and fall of 1864. This regiment was enlisted for one hundred days only and our subject was mustered out with his regiment in December 1864.

He assisted in organizing six regiments of soldiers from rebel prisons to fight the Sioux and on the 1st of March 1865, was appointed by the President 1st Lt. of Company G, Fifth Regiment U.S. Volunteers and commanded this company from that time until mustered out November 1866 at Fort Kearney, Nebraska.

Mr. Hughes was in the war against the Indians all this time and participated in the disastrous Powder River expedition of 1866 under General Connors. In this they lost their outfit, were severely handled by over 10,000 Sioux and suffered untold hardships during the retreat without food or sufficient clothing. This retreat lasted for six weeks in northern blizzards on the Upper Powder River.

Again Mr. Hughes was called into service at 1st Lt. and Regimental Quartermaster of the Eighteenth Regiment Kansas Cavalry, this being caused by the breaking out of the Indians in Western Kansas. Some of the hardest fighting of the war was performed by the Eighteenth Kansas during the summer and fall of 1867 under the command of General Custer. In the several battles with the Indians in which he participated the most severe was of three days duration when his command of 250 men lost forty two killed and wounded. The Indians had over 3000 warriors. Mr. Hughes was brevetted major, lt- Colonel and Colonel of Kansas Volunteers July 26, 1866 for meritorious services in the War of Rebellion and against the Indians. He was mustered out December 24, 1867 at Fort Harker, Kansas.

Mr. Hughes came to Arizona as early as July 1868, and here was annoyed and bothered by the Indians to such an extent that ranching with him was but a farce for many years. On his ranch, near where Crittenden Station now is, twenty two men were killed and in the last encounter, out of four he was the only one to escape. Selling his ranch in 1882 he engaged in business in Tucson with W.E. Stevens, a nephew of Hiram S. Stevens, and for five years the firm title was Stevens and Company. This was from 1882 till 1887. Then from 1887 until 1893 the firm was Hughes, Stevens and Company but at the present time it is Thomas Hughes Hardware Company.

In the year 1884 Mr. Hughes was elected treasurer of Pima County and in 1889 was made Territorial Auditor, serving as such until the latter part of June 1893.

On the 3rd of November 1874 he was married to Miss Helena Martinez, and nine children blessed this union, seven sons and two daughters: Annie, Thomas E., William Samuel, Arthur, Ralph, David, John, Louis and Helena. On the 17th of September 1893 Mrs. Hughes was killed by an adobe wall falling on her. Aside from his mercantile interests Mr. Hughes is engaged in mining and has met with fair success.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Samuel Hughes

Samuel Hughes is of foreign nativity, his birth occurring at Pembrookshire, Wales in April 1829, and his ancestry is traced to the ancient Britons. His father, whose name was also Samuel, brought his family to America in the year 1837, and shortly after his advent settled on the banks of the upper Schuylkill River, in Pennsylvania, where he engaged in dairying. In 1839, however, the family removed to Western Pennsylvania, locating on a farm about one and one half miles from Allegheny City. Here the mother died in 1843 and the family received another severe blow by the serious injury of the father, which left him a cripple for the remainder of his life. In 1844 they removed into Allegheny City, the children being under the guardianship of General William Robinson. The oldest son dying soon after their removal, Samuel devoted his entire time to help support the rest of the family, his first employment being as driver of a canal boat mounted on trucks, over the Allegheny Mountains, for the wage of six dollars per month. This was the first money earned by young Hughes, and while it was no great amount, he was justly proud of it because it was honestly earned by the sweat of his brow. On his return from a trip, General Robinson expressed a desire to have him go to school, but this he would not accede to unless proper provision was made for the support of the remainder of the children, then eight in number, he agreeing to take care of himself if such arrangements could be made. This being impracticable, he and his brother William secured employment in the spinning department of Blackstock's cotton factory, he receiving $1.25 and William seventy five cents per week for labor thus rendered, their combined expenditures amounting to $1.75 for board and ten cents for washing per week. It was in such a severe school of experience that Samuel Hughes embarked on life's commercial sea. The diligence with which young Hughes performed the duties devolving upon him attracted the notice and favor of the proprietor, Mr. Blackstock, who induced him to enter that part of the factory devoted to blacksmithing and he there familiarized himself with all the details pertaining to that trade.

In 1846, owing to a strike of the workingmen of the factory, he was thrown out of employment but with his characteristic energy and a desire to do whatever his hands found to do in the way of honorable toil, he secured employment in a confectionery and bakery establishment and there remained until the end of the strike, when he resumed his old position in the machine shop of Mr. Blackstock's factory.

For some time he was engaged in mechanical work, but eventually became a cabin boy (in 1848) on board a steamboat at $15.00 per month. In 1849 he made his first trip to New Orleans, and while returning from his second trip there to Cincinnati cholera carried off 47 of the deck passengers attached to his vessel. He continued steam boating until 1850 when his youthful ambition was fired by glowing reports from the gold fields of the Pacific slope and while at St. Joseph, Missouri, he started for California.

It was in the month of April that the start was made and sixty six wagons comprised the train. In payment for his trip across the plains and mountains Mr. Hughes contributed his services as a cook, an art he had acquired during his career on steamboats. After the start a division in three equal parts was made in the train, and the one to which Mr. Hughes was attached required that he should walk instead of ride--a far different experience than riding in a palatial steamer. The Carson was the route selected and when sixty miles from Hangtown, now Placerville, he met a man who offered him a half ounce of gold per day for his labor. Accepting this proposition, he remained at Hangtown until the following October and the went to Sacramento, where he remained until the next spring. For the purpose of opening a restaurant he then went to what is now Yreka, Siskiyou County, remained there until the spring of 1852, crossed the Siskiyou Mountains to Oregon and was one of the first to discover Rich Gulch at Jacksonville. While more or less trouble was experienced by the miners from Indian depredations, Mr. Hughes experienced none, his treatment of them being kind and fair and for these reasons he was held in high esteem by them. A local war between the whites and savages was finally terminated, Mr. Hughes, as interpreter, acting as mediator. Returning to Yreka, he opened a hotel but later was called upon to participate in another raid upon the Indians at Evans Creek.

In 1852 he purchased the Mountain House at the foot of the Siskiyou Mountains, on the California side and kept the stage station for the California and Oregon stage line. He there remained until May 1856, when he returned to the Shasta Valley and soon thereafter became interested in the stock business. Owing to ill health he was compelled to seek a more congenial climate, finally coming to Arizona and finding a home at Tucson. The admirable climate soon built up his shattered health, while the kindness and liberality of the citizens soon persuaded him to make this his permanent place of resident. Specimen ores brought in by prospectors soon led him to believe that valuable deposits of the precious metals existed within the territory, and with this idea in mind he embarked in prospecting and kindred pursuits and has continued such work to the present time with marked success. Incidentally, he has also been connected with other enterprises, and for years was known as the "Tucson Butcher" the name being acquired from his extensive meat market which he operated with his usual success. Merchandising also occupied his time and attention to a considerable extent as did also fulfilling contracts secured from the government and other sources.

Of late years, he has been much interested in the development of the resources of Arizona and methods that bring his beloved land to the attention of those seeking homes find in him a warm advocate. Besides being one of the organizers and president of the Santa Cruz Bank, he is also interested in various other financial institutions.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Eugene Ives

Eugene S. Ives, lawyer and statesman, was born in Washington D.C., November 11, 1859. He acquired his early education in the public schools of that city and was later graduated from Georgetown College with the class of 1878. He afterward pursued his studies in Austria and France, holding today the degree of A.B., A.M., Ph.D. and LL.B., the latter having been received in Columbia College of Law in 1880. He practiced his profession in New York City until 1895 and then came to Tucson where he has since remained.

On the 15th of June 1889 Mr. Ives wedded Miss Anna M. Waggaman, a native of Washington D.C. and they have seven children, Annette, Cora, Helen, Miriam, Ennals, Eugene and Eleanor.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 690

Royal Johnson

Royal A. Johnson, is the efficient Treasurer of Pima County, Arizona and a resident of Tucson. He is a product of Whiteside County, Illinois, born in the year 1854, and was a resident of that county until 1860 when he accompanied his parents to Colorado. Three years later he moved with them to New York City and made his home there until 1871, when he went to Europe and spent two years in England and France. In the year 1873 he returned to the United States and in the latter part of that year he went to Venezuela in connection with the construction of the Caracas and La Guaria Railroad and there remained seven months. After returning to the Empire State he entered his father's law office with the intention of practicing that profession in New York, associated with his father, but during the great excitement attending the Hayes-Tilden election he became imbued with a desire to mingle in politics and in the latter part of 1877 he secured the appointment as clerk of the United States Senate Committee on civil service, which played so prominent a part in Hayes' administration. When the control of the Senate passed into Democratic hands Mr. Johnson resigned his position and entered the Columbian Law University, at Washington, D.C., graduating in 1881 with the degree of LL.D. The year previous to this the Republicans again secured control of the United States Senate and Mr. Johnson was appointed clerk of the Committee on Pensions, one of the most important committees in the Senate. While holding this position Mr. Johnson was offered the law clerkship of the Interior Department, but declined the same to come to Arizona, believing that this Territory presented a great field for a young man. Soon after locating in Tucson he was offered and accepted the chief clerkship of the Surveyor-General's office under General Robbins, intending ultimately to resign and practice law. After the death of General Robbins, President Arthur appointed Mr. Johnson Surveyor-General, which position he held until the Cleveland administration, after which he retired from office and in connection with ex-Governor Wolfley, purchased the Arctic Ice Company Works at Tucson.

In the year 1888 he was elected Chancellor of the University of Arizona but after his second appointment as United States Surveyor-General in 1889, the Attorney- General of the United States rendered a decision to the effect that he could not hold both offices and he resigned the Chancellorship. After the election of President Harrison, General Johnson was once more appointed Surveyor-General for Arizona. The principal work of importance in the office of Surveyor General of Arizona has always been in the private Land Grant Department, and at this work General Johnson has particularly distinguished himself. Not long after his first term an effort was made to float the Presidio Grant over the city of Tucson, which caused consternation to property holders. By energetic and intelligent work the Surveyor-General was able to unravel the mysteries and uncertainties surrounding this case and caused the claimant to abandon his original intentions. In many cases General Johnson went into the field in person with the claimants and by practical demonstration showed them the futility of their absurd claims to enlarge boundaries, but his principal work has been the showing up of the famous Perlta Grant fraud, which was forged for the purpose of securing five million acres of our forest lands, conservatively estimated to be worth at least $1000,000,000. Several years were spent by him in this work, and evidence was secured from Spain, Mexico and elsewhere, showing forgery and fabrication of papers with great cunning and General Johnson's report to Congress is regarded as the ablest private land grant report ever made on Mexican Claims and completely wiped out the fraud that hung as a heavy cloud over the titles of the four counties, Maricopa, Pinal, Gila and Graham. He held the position of Surveyor-General until March 4, 1893, the day President Cleveland took his seat and afterwards gave his time and attention to his ice factory and to stock raising.

In the fall of 1894 he was elected Treasurer of pima County and this office he is now filling. Mr. Johnson's ice factory has a capacity of manufacturing ten tons per day. He is also engaged in mining and is interested in a number of mines. He was one of the organizers of the Phoenix "Republican" and a stockholder and he is also a stockholder in the "Daily Tucson Citizen."

On the 14th of February 1877, he married Miss Frances Morrison, of Brooklyn New York.

Source: History of Arizona, 1898

Manuel King

It is always a source of inspiration to read of the lives of men who through their own efforts have risen from an impecunious position to one of affluence and yet in so doing have maintained their honor intact and enjoy the respect and esteem of their fellow citizens. Such a life is that of Manuel J. King who owns five ranches in Pima County, where he is extensively engaged in the cattle business. He was born in Alameda County California on December 17, 1867 and is a son of Andrew J. King who was one of the pioneers of that state. The father located in California in 1848 and for some years thereafter engaged in prospecting and mining but subsequently turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, developing land in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties.

Manuel J. King was reared at home and given the advantages of a common school education. After laying aside his textbooks he assisted his father in the cultivation of the ranch at San Leandro, remaining at home until he was about nineteen. In 1886 he came to Tucson Arizona and went on the range as a cowboy with the baboquivari Land and Cattle Company in the Sasabe Valley. He was ambitious and enterprising and from time to time invested in cattle. These he would later sell at an advance and invest again following this method until he had accumulated enough money to establish a ranch of his own. In 1896 he took up a tract of government land on which he made the necessary improvements and then invested the remainder of his capital in cattle. Careful management and the exercise of intelligence and good judgment in the direction of his undertakings brought the usual reward and each year witnessed an advance in his career. As the years passed he increased his herds and extended his holdings until he now owns five ranches, which aggregate two thousand acres. Three of these are located in the Baboquivari Mountains and the other tow in the Sasabe Valley and are used for cattle ranges while during a part of the season his cattle are turned out upon the public domain.

In 1896 Mr. King married miss Margaret Corra, a native of Mexico and to them have been born five children: Margaret, Mary, John, Joseph and Walter. The family resided on one of the ranches until 1907 when Mr. King erected a comfortable residence on South Stone Avenue in Tucson an removed to that city in order to give his children better educational advantages. He is still operating his ranches, but he is also directing his energies along other business lines and in 1910 in company with W.B. Coberly established the Tucson Iron Works which they sold in 1912 to the Steinfeld Company.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

W. H. Kirkland

W. H. Kirkland who raised the first American flag in 1856 in the town of Tucson was born in Petersburg, Virginia, July 12, 1832, and emigrated to Arizona shortly after the Gadsden Purchase, eight or nine years before the organization of the Territory. He and his wife were the first white couple married in Arizona, being married in Tucson May 26, 1860. In 1863 and 1864 he spent a good deal of time around Walnut Grove mining and ranching about which time he purchased the ranch located by Pauline Weaver and there engaged in stock raising. Later he settled in the Salt River Valley where Mrs. Wayne Ritter, his daughter, was born in Phoenix on August 15, 1871. She was born in the second house which was built in the city of Phoenix. Kirkland died in Winkleman Arizona January 19, 1911, at the age of 78 and was survived by a wife and seven children.

Source: History of Arizona, Vol II, Thomas E. Farish, 1915, pg 200

Julius Kruttschnitt, Jr.

Julius Kruttschnitt, manger of the American Smelting and Refining Company at Tucson is recognized as one of the prominent young business men of the city, holding high rank in the profession of mining engineering. He was born in New Orleans, May 7, 1885, a son of Julius and Minna E. (Kock) Kruttschnitt, who were also natives of the Crescent city. The son pursued his education in the preparatory school at Belmont California and after entered Yale University from which he graduated in 1906 completing a course in mining engineering. He afterward entered the employ of the Arizona Copper Company as a mining engineer at Morenci, Arizona. In 1909 he became connected with the American Smelting and refining Company, which he represented in Mexico for two and a half years. At the end of that time the development department was established with headquarters in Tucson and he was placed in charge at that city and still fills the position.

On the 24th of September 1907, Mr. Kurttschnitt was married to Miss Marie Pickering of San Francisco and a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frederick M. Pickering, the former a real estate dealer of that city. The children of this marriage are Marie Elise, Barbara and Julius.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Henry Levin

This gentleman has inherited the sturdy characteristics which have brought success to many of German origin and is now the capable and efficient assessor of Pima County, Arizona. He was born in Tucson, Arizona, May 24, 1868 and is a son of Alexander and Zenona (Molina) Levin, the father a native of Germany and the mother of Sonora, Mexico. The parents were early settlers of Tucson and the father followed the occupation of a brewer. His death occurred September 29, 1891.

During his youth Henry Levin had good educational advantages and for some time attended the Newton Collegiate Institute of Newton, New Jersey in Sussex County. Later he took a year's course in the Lawrence Business College of Lawrence, Kansas and after returning to Tucson became clerk in a general merchandise store. After this he accepted the position as deputy postmaster at Nogales, Arizona, held that position for one year and then resigned to accept a place as bookkeeper in a store owned by Juan Bojoquez at Nogales. For two years he held that position and then resigned to become a partner with his father in the brewery business at Tucson, remaining thus connected until a short time before the latter's death. He then became interested in the commission, real estate and brokerage business, met with fair success in this and was thus occupied until in 1892, when he was elected city assessor and collector of licenses of Tucson, Arizona. This position he held one term and was elected to his present position in 1893. Reliable and competent, Mr. Levin's services were appreciated by the people and he was re-elected in 1894. This position he is now holding. In the month of January 1896, in company with R.G. Brady, Mr. Levin engaged in the broker business, dealing in cattle, real estate, mines and insurance.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Joseph Lines

Joseph H. Lines, at the head of one of the largest mercantile enterprises in Pima was born in Goshen Utah, October 4, 1870. He is a son of Henry and Emily (Weech) Lines, natives of England, now residing in Pima. The father removed to Utah during the Civil War and the mother arrived in that state with her parents some time later. In their family were eight children: Joseph H. of this review; Emma, deceased; Mary, wife of William E. McBride of Pima by whom she has seven children; Samuel E. of Pima; William A., also of Pima who is married and has four children; Milton who resides with his wife an three children in Morenci; Alvin who makes his home in Pima and John G. who with his wife and children resides in Pima.

John H. Lines remained with his parents until he was married at the age of twenty one and afterward he worked at different occupations for a number of years. In 1897 and 1898 he engaged in teaching and in the latter year was sent on a mission for the Mormon Church. Two years later he returned to Pima and taught in the public schools. He then turned his attention to business pursuits, clerking in mercantile establishments for three years and then working for his brothers in the dairy business in Clifton and Morenci. Returning to Pima, he joined his brother, Milton Lines, in purchasing a small merchandise store which had been established by D.H. Weech, one of the pioneers in the valley. Joseph H. Lines took charge of the business and has been the head of the concern since that time. After a short time William a. Lines, another brother, purchased an interest in the business and the firm name is now Lines Brothers & Company, H.J. Anderson being also a stockholder. It has had a prosperous and successful career and the stock which was originally valued at four thousand dollars has increased in value to nine thousand. Milton and William A. Lines are stockholders in the Citizens Bank of Thatcher, a branch of which has been established in their store with Joseph H. Lines as local manager. In addition he owns one hundred and sixty acres of ranch land.

On October 6, 1891 Mr. Lines married Miss Sarah E. Ferrin, a native of Utah and a daughter of Jacob S. and Jenetta A. (McBride) Ferrin. The mother crossed the plains to Utah as a member of one of the handcart companies, walking all the way from Missouri. The father accompanied her a part of the way but died on the journey. Mr. and Mrs. Lines have twelve children: Freda E., who resides at home and is employed at the Lines store; Cora, deceased; Rowena, who is attending an academy in Thatcher; Charles H., Lavena and Lavona, twins, Walter and Milo all attending school; Alice; Maggie, deceased; Cleve and Claude.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 771

William Lovell

William M. Lovell, is classed among the prominent legal lights of Tucson Arizona where he has resided since the year 1882. He is a product of Blue Grass soil, his birth having occurred in Muhlenburgh County, Kentucky, November 5, 1836 on a farm. In the year 1852 he crossed the plains to California with his parents and in the year 1862 was graduated from the University of the Pacific, Santa Clara County. In that county his parents reside at the present time.

Young Lovell remained on his father's farm in California until 1858, when he went to Frazier River, British Columbia, during the gold excitement and followed mining until the following autumn. Returning home he then entered the university from which he was subsequently graduated in 1862 as above stated and then began the study of law with Judge Lawrence Archer. In the spring of 1863 he went to Austin, Nevada Territory and engaged in the practice of law with Al Hereford, now deceased. Later in 1864 he returned to San Jose California where he began practicing. In 1865 he formed a partnership with his preceptor, Judge L. Arthur and continued with him until November 1882. While practicing in San Jose he served as deputy district attorney for six months and then was appointed to the position of district attorney, filling a vacancy and held that office eighteen months. So well did he discharge the duties of this position that he was soon after elected district attorney and re-elected to that position, thus serving a number of years. As before stated, Mr. Lovell located in Tucson in 1882 and early in 1883 he formed a co-partnership with B.H. Hereford. In 1885 the latter was elected district attorney of Pima County and Mr. Lovell served as his deputy. In 1888 he was re-elected and the firm was dissolved, Mr. Lovell continuing his practice alone. Two years after this he was elected district attorney of Pima County and served two years and in 1892 he was elected to the Legislature to represent his district, serving one term. In 1894 he was again elected district attorney which position he holds at this time.

He was married in 1863 to Miss Mildred L. Welch of San Jose California and they have four children: Gussie O., Laurette F., a lady commissioner to the World's Fair; Lawrence Archer, chief clerk in Wells-Fargo Express at Phoenix and Ira W. Mr. Lovell's parents, Joseph and Laurette (Campbell) Lovell are natives of Kentucky and on the maternal side of Scotch origin. Grandfather Michael Lovell was born on Chesapeake Bay in Maryland.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Charles Meyer

Charles H. Meyer was a German and settled in Tucson in 1854. From 1875 he served several times as City Recorder. His court was unique; every man, when first brought before him for any misdemeanor, he would treat leniently, sometimes giving him a lecture but for the second offense, he usually imposed a heavy fine and in addition would send the offender to the chain gang. If the prisoner demurred to the sentence, the judge would generally double the time on the chain gang saying, "Well, I give you thirty days more on the chain gang for contempt of court." By this methods he kept Tucson an orderly city during his terms in office. He had the first drug store in Tucson, which he conducted for many years. One of the principal streets of the city , Meyer Street, is named for him. He died in Tucson, September 7, 1903 having been a resident of the town for forty seven years.

Source: History of Arizona, Thomas Edwin Farish, Vol. 2 1915, pg. 240

Frank Moss

Among the worthy residents of Phoenix, Arizona Territory, it is but just to say that Mr. Moss occupies a conspicuous and honorable place, for he has always been industrious and enterprising, and as a result has met with well merited success. He is a member of the Phoenix council and a blacksmith who thoroughly understands his calling. Mr. Moss was born in Kenosha County, Wisconsin, September 15, 1852, to the marriage of Francis Moss and Carrie Smith, both natives of Germany. The parents came to this country when young, were married here, and the father followed the trade of blacksmith in Wheatland, Wisconsin, until his death in December, 1895. He held the position of Supervisor for a number of years. Mrs. Moss is still living and makes her home in Wheatland. Frank B. Moss grew to manhood in the last named city, secured a thorough education in the public schools, and when about sixteen years old began learning the blacksmith trade. He began as an apprentice in Kenosha, with Head & Sutherland, and was thus occupied for a few years, after which he went to Virginia City, Nevada, where he worked at his trade and ran a wood yard for a number of years. In 1878 he came to Tombstone, Arizona, where, in connection with his trade, he drove a team for some time. The country was very wild at that time, Indians were numerous and hostile, and although he was shot at twice by the savages he escaped uninjured. He traveled for the most part by night to escape them. Later he went to Harshaw, Pima County, Arizona, and opened a blacksmith shop which he ran until 1880, when he located at Phoenix. There he followed his trade for some time. In 1885 he embarked in business on his own account and has carried it on very successfully up to the present. He is one of the representative men of the city and may be counted a pioneer. Mr. Moss owns considerable real estate in Phoenix as well as a nice home, and is quite deeply interested in gold mining. He also owns 160 acres of ranch land on the Gila river, with its water rights. In the month of May, 1894, he was elected to the city council and he has held other responsible positions, being chief of the fire department in 1892. He takes a deep interest in all that pertains to the welfare of his section and is a most valuable citizen. Socially he is a member of the I. O. O. F., the A. O. U. W. and Woodmen of the World. On the 3Oth of May, 1885. he was married to Miss Ida M. Harriman, a native of Wisconsin, and they have three interesting children: Edmund Earl, Ralph and Ernest, the last two twins.

Source: A Historical and Biographical Record of the Territory of Arizona Published by McFarland & Poole, Chicago, 1896, p. 450-451

Sidney Newsom

Professor Sidney Carleton Newsom, one of the best known educators in Arizona, now connected with educational interests of Tucson as city superintendent of schools, was born in Cherokee, Colbert County, Alabama, October 26, 1863, and is a son of Charles Edward and Mary Towns (Ligon) Newsom. His father was a graduate of the University of South Carolina and was also a college professor, being connected with the Masonic College at Macon Tennessee. The son acquired an excellent education as a preparation for his important life work, for after completing the usual course in the public schools of Macon, Tennessee, he attended the Indiana State Normal School. He received his A.B. degree from Harvard University in 1895 and was graduated from the University of Chicago with the degree of A.M. in 1898. He began his independent career as superintendent of schools at Marion, Illinois and later became principal of the Houston Texas high school. From there he went to Indianapolis Indiana where for five years he did able work in a similar position. He spent three years in the Philippine Islands as Division Superintendent of schools and in this way he broadened his knowledge and came in contact with other standards and methods.

Professor Newsom came to Arizona in 1904 and spent four years as head of the English Department in the State University, after which he accepted the position of city superintendent of the Tucson schools. During his residence in the Philippines he devoted a great deal of his time to writing and is the author of a series of textbooks, nine in number. He has also compiled three editions of the English classics for the Macmillan Publishing Company.

Professor Newsom was married in 1898 to Miss Levona Hamlin Payne, a native of Franklin, Indiana who is well known in social circles of Tucson and has served as president of the Woman's Club.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 649

Estevan Ochoa

Estevan Ochoa was a New Mexican by birth. In his early youth he went to Kansas City, where he obtained employment and acquired a fair knowledge of the English language. He started in business on his own account at Mesilla New Mexico. He made a success of the enterprise and thereafter started a number of branch stores in both New Mexico and Arizona. The firm of Tully and Ochoa of which he was a member was one of the largest mercantile establishments in Tucson. In Bourke's "On the Border with Crook" is an account of his visit to Tucson in which he has this to say of Estevan Ochoa:

"This rather undersized gentleman coming down the street is a man with a history--perhaps it might be perfectly correct to say with two or three histories. He is Don Estevan Ochoa, one of the most enterprising merchants as he is admitted to be one of the coolest and bravest men in all the southwestern country. He has a handsome face, a keen black eye, a quick business-like air with very polished and courteous manners.

During the war, the Southern leaders thought they would establish a chain of posts across the continent from Texas to California, and one of their first movements was to send a brigade of Texans to occupy Tucson. The commanding general--Turner by name-- sent for Don Eestevan and told him that he had been informed that he was an outspoken sympathizer with the cause of the Union but he hoped that Ochoa would see that the Union was a thing of the past, and reconcile himself to the new state of affairs and take the oath of the Confederacy and thus relieve the general from the disagreeable responsibility of confiscating his property and setting him adrift outside of his lines.

Don Estevan never hesitated a moment. He was not that kind of man. His reply was perfectly courteous as I am told, all the talk on the part of the Confederate officer had been. Ochoa owed all he had in the world to the Government of the U.S. and it would be impossible for him to take an oath of fidelity to any hostile power or party. When would General Turner wish him to leave?

He was allowed to select one of his many horses and to take a pair of saddle bags filled with such clothing and food as he could get together on short notice and then with a rifle and twenty rounds of ammunition was led outside the lines and started for the Rio Grande. When Union troops reoccupied Tucson, Don Estevan resumed business and was soon wealthy again.

He died on October 27, 1888 at his home in Las Cruces New Mexico.

Source: History of Arizona, Vol II, Thomas E. Farish, 1915, pg 203

F. A. Odermatt

Prominent among Tucson's professional men and one who has been long identified with the moral and material advancement of the city, is F. A. Odermatt, the leading dentist, whose offices are located in the handsome post office block. Mr. Odermatt was born in Buochs, in Canton Unterwalden, Switzerland, June 17, 1848, and lived with his parents there until about four years old. In February 1852, his father and family emigrated to the new world and arrived in New Orleans where they remained but a short time. From there they went to St. Louis and thence to Springfield, Illinois but only remained in the latter place a short time, when they returned to St. Louis. Mr. Odermatt, Sr. was engaged in the mercantile business, and prior to the war enjoyed a successful business career in the cities named, but California seemed to offer greater opportunities and so in 1863 he took his family to San Francisco. It was in this city that our subject resumed his education, began in St. Louis and Springfield and he entered St. Ignatius' College. After a period of study there he entered St. Thomas' Theological Seminary at the old Mission Dolores in 1865 where he devoted his time to Latin and Greek up to 1867. In February, 1867 accompanying Archbishop Allmany of San Francisco, he sailed for Europe to finish his education, and in May of the same year entered the College of Einsidlen, an old and famous institution of learning of Switzerland. He remained there nearly two years, when he became so seriously ill that the college physician advised him to give up his studies and return home as soon as his condition would permit undertaking the long voyage.

He returned to San Francisco in the early part of May 1869 and after a few months rest he recovered from his illness and decided to take up the study of dentistry. Having chosen his profession, he entered the service of the late Dr. C.c. Knowles, a leading dentist of the Pacific Coast and remained there a period of ten years after which he began practice for himself, opening a dental laboratory on the corner of Post and Kearney streets. During a period of three years he enjoyed a lucrative business and executed work for the leading men of the profession at that time. His success in this line elicited a large number of press testimonials to his skill.

In October 1882 he decided to make the Territory of Arizona his home and arrived in this city during that month. He has been here ever since, has led all others in his profession, is married and is happy in the possession of a bright son and daughter and a charming wife.

Mrs. Odermatt, nee Senorita Carlota Flores, is a granddaughter on the mother's side of the late Don Carlos Yorba of San Juan, who once owned large tracts of land and immense herds of cattle, horses and sheep, and almost the entire Santa Anna Valley of southern California. On her father's Senor Jesto Flores, side she is closely connected with the famous Godoy family of Santiago, Chili, the grandmother being a sister to Senor Miguel Godoy, once Balmeceda's Ambassador to France.

Mr. Odermatt's residence is one of the most elegantly appointed homes in the city. Of an artistic turn, Mr. Odermatt devotes his leisure hours to sculpturing, his superior work eliciting praise from the press and public. The "Daily Star" has said, "Dr. F.A. Odermatt of this city is a sculptor of no mean abilities. He recently carved out of wood a most beautiful model of the old San Xavier Church and the same will be placed on exhibition in Dr. Martin's drug store for a few days." The "Arizona Enterprise" of Tucson, dated July 7, 1892 was no less enthusiastic in the following article, "Dr. F.A. Odermatt, besides being one of the most skillful dentist west of the Rocky Mountains, possesses a high order of merit as a sculptor. He has recently devoted his spare time to an artistic design in plaster that would do credit to any experienced professional, and he has succeeded in giving the most realistic expression to human physiognomy appropriate to the character his design represents. Had his talents been directed toward this branch of the arts, he would surely have achieved a world-wide fame. Dr. Odermatt is the most expert 'filigree' wood worker in this city."

The grandfather of Dr. Odermatt, Zumbuehl (his mother's father) was a noted sculptor of Canton Underwalden, Switzerland, his works being mostly in alabaster.

Source: History of Arizona 1896

Charles Osburn

Charles R. Osburn was born in Iowa City Iowa in 1880, a son of R.R. and Susan M. (Wligus) Osburn who were natives of New York and Ohio respectively. After living at different periods in Illinois and Indiana they became residents of Iowa and there the father who had in early life learned the printer's trade, continued in that line of business.

Mr. Osburn was given the advantages of public school and business college training in Iowa and after thus qualifying for the practical and responsible duties of life he entered the employ of the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern Railway at Cedar Rapids, where he remained for three years. He then became connected with the Northern Pacific Railway in the passenger department at St. Paul where he acted as rate clerk and chief clerk of the advertising department.

Mr. Osburn came to the southwest in 1906 at which time he took up his abode in Tucson. He taught at an Indian school in Tucson and was also pastor of the Baptist Church at Glendale, Arizona at one time. He resigned to become clerk of the board of control and was appointed secretary and citizen member of the board on the 1st of March 1912.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Nabor Pacheco

Nabor Pacheco has practically spent his entire life in Tucson in which city he was born on the 12th of July 1863, a son of Refugio and Paula (Cruz) Pacheco. The father was born in the town of Ignacio, Sonora, Mexico but was brought to Tucson in infancy and was here reared and educated. Tucson was the birthplace of the mother. Being endowed with good business ability, Refugio Pacheco met with success in his business affairs. In matters of citizenship he was progressive and enterprising, possessing the powers of organization and resourcefulness which stamped him as a leader in the community. Although he was only thirty six years of age at the time of his death, which occurred in 1873, he had acquired valuable tracts of land in and around Tucson and was numbered among the representative citizens of Pima County. He took a very active interest in political affairs. In his family were seven children, of whom five are still living: Nabor, being the eldest, Mateo, Manuel, Jesus M., and Refugio. On both the paternal and maternal sides our subject is of pure Spanish ancestry his lineage being traced back to Spain.

Nabor Pacheco attended school in Tucson and upon the completion of his education began farming and cattle raising on land left him by his father, owning a tract of about one hundred and sixty acres near the city. For about thirteen years he held official positions and for two and one half years had charge of one hundred men employed at Tucson Farms near the city. He is today one of the substantial citizens of Tucson and has valuable realty interests.

It was in this city that Mr. Pacheco was married to Miss Carmen Monteverde and to them have been born the following children: Nabor Jr., Henry, Powleta, Richard, Ameda, Viola and Raquel.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913

Olva Parker

Olva Clayton Parker, the proprietor of a well appointed undertaking establishment in Tucson and otherwise connected in an important way with business interests of the city, was born in Henry County, Tennessee, January 28, 1860. His parents afterward removed to Anna, Illinois where he was reared and educated and where, after laying aside his textbooks, he became a clerk in the money order department of the post office. He came west to New Mexico journeying by stage from Kansas City and arriving in Las Vegas, April 20, 1879. For four years he was connected with cattle ranching in that section and also took part in the Lincoln County War, joining a company organized by general Lew Wallace. He served until the close of hostilities, a period of one and one half years and afterward fought against the Indians at Silver City, finally retiring from military life as senior major, New Mexico National Guard.

Mr. Parker came to Arizona in 1896 and spent two years in the undertaking business in Phoenix, after which he opened a similar establishment in Tucson. He carries a fine line of caskets and funeral supplies and a liberal patronage is accorded him, for his prices are reasonable and his integrity above question. He has other extensive business interests here, being president of the Hart-Parker Company, brokers and investors, a director in the Arizona National Bank of Tucson, and also in the Cochise Copper Company. He erected the Citizens Building in Tucson which he rented to the company for ten years.

In 1894 Mr. Parker married Miss Honerene M. McDonald, a native of Kentucky and they have three daughters: Malvene and Grace, both of whom were born in Las Vegas, New Mexico and Edith Virginia, whose birth occurred in Tucson.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 609

James Pennington

James Pennington, familiarly known as "Old Pennington" was one of the pioneers of Arizona. The Pennington family consisted of James Pennington, his wife and five children, three daughters and two sons. They moved from Tennessee into Texas and from thence pushed westward through New Mexico into Arizona and settled upon the Sonoita near Fort Buchanan in the year 1857 or 1858. During the time of the abandonment of the country by the Americans "he occupied," says Ross Browne, "a small cabin three miles above the Calabassas, surrounded by roving bands of hostile Indians. He stubbornly refused to leave the country; said he had as much right to it as the infernal Indians and would live there in spite of all the devils out of the lower regions. His cattle were stolen, his corrals burned down, his fields devastated; yet he stood it out to the last. At times when hard pressed for food, he would go out in the hills for deer, which he packed in on his back at the risk of his life." Frequently in his absence his daughters stood guard with guns in their hands, to keep off the Indians who besieged the premises.

About this time, Miss Lucera S. Pennington was married to a Mr. Paige and was living with her husband in a canyon where she was captured by a roving band of Indians, together with a little girl about ten years of age, said to be a Mexican and who it is said afterwards became the wife of the late Charles A. Shibell of Tucson. Mrs. Paige, not being able to keep up with the Indians on their trip over the mountains, one of them ran a lance through her and threw her over a bluff upon a pile of rocks and supposed he had killed her, as was his intention, but after several days and nights of suffering, she succeeded in getting to where she was recognized, cared for and saved. Her first husband was afterwards killed by Indians. She lived for several years in the vicinity of Camp Crittenden which was established later near Fort Buchanan and her father teamed and ranched some on the Sonoita. In 1869 Old James Pennington and his son Green were ambushed and killed by the Apaches and both were buried at Crittenden. Another son named James was killed later by the Apaches. The remainder of the Pennington family moved to Tucson in 1870 and it is said returned to Texas, all except Mrs. Paige who met William F. Scott at Tucson and married him. She raised a family of two daughters and one son and died in Tucson March 31, 1913 and was there buried.

Old Man Pennington, the head of the family was described as a man of excellent sense, but rather eccentric; large and tall with a fine face and athletic frame, he presented a good specimen of the American frontiersman. One of the principle streets in Tucson is named for him.

Source: History of Arizona, Vol II, Thomas E. Farish, 1915, pg 199

James Plunkett

One of Tucson's important and prosperous industries is the City Laundry Company of which James H. Plunkett is president and manager. Under his wise supervision, the business of this concern has grown steadily through the years and is now of the leading laundries in this section of the state.

Mr. Plunkett was born in Seneca Falls, Seneca County, New York on the 16th day of January 1861, and is a son of Thomas and Mary (Martin) Plunkett. He received his educational training in the public schools after which he engaged in railroading, being employed in the mechanical department of various roads for a number of years.

In 1882 he came through Arizona and at that time formed the favorable opinion of this state which later led him to establish his permanent home here. In the course of his meanderings he went to South America, where he spent several years, before deciding to settle down in a desirable locality.

In May 1904 he came to Tucson as foreman of the Southern Pacific boiler shops. Later he was sent to Cuba, where he installed machinery on a railroad at Camaguay, a job which engaged his attention for one year. On hi return to Tucson he did some work at the City Laundry Company with the result that he acquired a large financial interest in that concern, of which he is now the executive head. He is a good business man, with which he combines a wide and accurate knowledge of mechanics which has stood him in good stead, and he has had the pleasure of seeing a steady increase in the volume of business which has come in recognition of the high quality of work turned out by this laundry.

On April 28, 1889 at El Paso Texas Mr. Plunkett was united in marriage to Miss Fannie Roy and to them have been born four children: Mary, who is the wife of Edward Ott; Hattie, who is a sister of Charity and is known as Sister Mary Rosella; Rosella, who is the wife of Herbert Hill, and James Roy, twenty years old who is attending business college.

Mr. Plunkett has shown a good citizen's interest in local public affairs and in 1913 served as a member of the city council in which capacity he stood squarely for the best interests of the community. He is essentially a self made man, having made his way in the world without assistance and showing himself an intelligent and discriminating man in everything with which he has been connected. His record as business man and private citizen has been a commendable one and he has well merited the success which as come to him.

Source: History of Arizona, pg 543

Rollin Richardson

Mr. Rollin R. Richardson, the gentleman referred to, came to Arizona from Franklin Pa. about twenty years ago and settled on the banks of the Sonata, three miles north of Crittenden. Mr. Richardson has the most attractive ranch on the river, as all attest, in which the finest fruit in the county can be gathered. There are about eight acres in this Arizona Garden of Eden where the apples are of the juiciest. Besides all this a very home like abode is situated and here Mr. Richardson and family are spending their summers and winters. Mr. Richardson does not market the orchard product; it is too good to part with even at a profit. His friends are welcome within the gates, however.

Mr. Richardson and his partner have 5,000 acres of patented land on the Sonata which extended three miles south of Rollins , a town site laid out by the Rollin Town site Company in which Mr. Richardson is interested. Mr. Richardson said that a tangle had caused the Columbia smelter at Rollin to be closed down in October but that matters had been fixed up whereby the Messrs. Eames had retired and a nephew of C.P. Huntington would assume the management. It was possible improvements looking to be increased capacity would be introduced.

In Mr. Richard's opinion Washington District, southeast of Crittendon would be the most important in the southern section. The Duquesne camp, properties of the Washington company has grown to considerable proportions and as the company has the means the probabilities are that they are ready to add new machinery when it is required. There are fully 120 people in Duquesne camp. There is a fair road of twenty miles out of Crittenden to the camp and district and a stage runs between the railroad and camp. Tucson is the supply point though Nogales is not asleep to the situation. Only a trail exists between the district and Nogales but they ship via Crittenden out of the border town.

"Between cattle shipping and mining we are comfortably situated and our section will look up gradually," said Mr. Richardson. The gentleman will be here today.

Source: Unknown, February 10, 1898

Mark Rodgers

Dr. Mark A. Rodgers, of Tucson, Arizona, although young in years, is thoroughly equipped for the successful practice of this most noble of callings, has the confidence and esteem of his brethren and is building up a desirable practice as a result of his superior attainment. He was born in the east, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, February 5, 1866 and in that place secured a good high school education. A desire for a professional life and a love for the study of medicine caused him to select that as his chosen calling and when twenty years old he entered the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, from which institution he was graduated in 1890. Soon after he began practicing in his native city and for thirteen months was resident physician of Allegheny General Hospital. Still later he became Chief Chemical Assistant and Asst. Gynecologist to Dr. R. Stromburg, Sutton, Gynecologist of the Hospital of Pittsburgh and that position he filled for two years. Here he became thoroughly familiar with Adominoscopy and Gynecological surgery and soon had a very large practice in this line for himself. Dr. Rodgers has written a great many papers on this subject and reported some very difficult and successful operations. He was a member of the Allegheny County Medical Society and Secretary of the Pittsburgh Obstetrical Society, also Fellow of the Pittsburgh Academy of Medicine.

In the year 1895, in the month of June, Dr. Rodgers came to Tucson Arizona seeking a milder climate for his health and satisfied that he had found what was wanted, decided to make his permanent home here. He has built up a fine practice and stands at the head of his profession in Arizona.

Source: History of Arizona, 1898

George Roskruge

The sons of Old England are well represented in Arizona and among them none hold a more conspicuous place than does General George J. Roskruge, whose determination and perseverance mark him as a true Englishman. He was born at Roskruge, near the town of Helston, Cornwall, April 10, 1845. At the age of fifteen he obtained a place as messenger boy in the law offices of Grylls, Hill and Hill of Helston, and on the 12th of August 1860, he entered the 7th Company of the Duke of Cornwall's Rifle Volunteers, serving ten years, during which time he distinguished himself as a rifle shot, being the winner of many company, regimental and all-comers' prizes. On the 31 day of August 1868, he was selected as one of the "Cornish Twenty" to complete with the "Devon Twenty" in the fourth annual match for the Challenge Cup, and for the two years prior to his resignation from the volunteer service he wore the "Three Stars" for being the crack shot of the company.

In October 1870 he emigrated to the United States, going directly to Denver, Colorado, where he was given employment by Lawrence n. Greenleaf and his partner, Gardner G. Brewer. After remaining in Denver for about two years, he with about twenty other adventurous spirits, determined to visit Arizona and after surviving perils of flood, droughts, famine and Apache Indians, reached Prescott in June 1872. In November of the same year he engaged with United States Deputy Surveyor Omar H. Case as cook and packer and was with Mr. Case when running the 5th standard parallel north from Partridge Creek to the Colorado River. The following spring, he, as chainman, served with deputy Case and the following year, 1874, he spent several months in the field with United States Deputy Surveyor C.B. Foster and on returning from the field he prepared the maps and field notes for transmission to the surveyor general and it was on account of the neat and correct manner in which these were executed that induced the then surveyor general of Arizona, Hon. John Wasson to tender to General Roskruge the position of chief draughtsman in his office, which position was accepted and filled by him with credit to himself and the appointing power until June 1880, when he resigned and entered into business as a surveyor, receiving appointments as United States deputy land and mineral surveyor.

General Roskruge has served four terms as county surveyor of Pima County; three terms as city engineer of Tucson; one term as member of the Board of Regents of the University of Arizona; in 1888 was elected vice-president and in 1889 as president of the Tucson Building and Loan Association. On the 1st of July 1893 he accepted the position of chief clerk in the United States surveyor general's office and upon the resignation of the surveyor general in 1896, was by President Cleveland appointed surveyor general, the position he now holds.

In 1870 when he, with a companion, left New York for Denver and not having a large surplus of cash, they laid out $1.50 in cheese and crackers, which provision, with the addition of a ten cent loaf bought at Omaha, lasted five days until they got to Denver and their first meal in that city was made off the remnants of the cheese and crackers. Whilst in Denver, during the month of February 1871, the General being out of work and funds, borrowed a dollar from a friend and with it purchased tickets good for seventeen loaves of Graham bread. On this kind of food he existed for ten days, and shortly after entering Arizona, being camped at Volunteer Springs, now Belmont on the A& P R.R., he with three companions, after partaking of a breakfast consisting of twelve potatoes, these potatoes being the last of their provisions, started to walk to Prescott, and three and one half days after, on Sunday morning, reached Mr. Banghart's in the Little Chino Valley, where they were provided with a square meal, being the first food that had passed their lips in eighty four hours.

He is 52 years of age, above medium height, and turns the scales at 130 lbs. This lack of avoirdupois may well be attributed to his having to so often "take up another hole in his belt."

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

George Roskruge

George J. Roskruge, pioneer, champion rifle shot of the southwest, civil engineer of commanding ability and unusual accomplishments and the father of Masonry in Arizona was born in Roskruge, near Helston, Cornwall England, April 10, 1845. He is truly a self-made man, for he began his business life at the age of fifteen as a messenger boy in the law offices of Grylls, Hill and Hill of Helston. On April 12, 1860 he entered the Seventh Company of the Duke of Cornwall's Rifle Volunteers and served ten years, during which time he came into prominence as a remarkably accurate rifle shot. He won many company and regimental prizes and on August 31, 1868 was selected as one of the Cornish Twenty to compete wit the Devon Twenty in the fourth annual match for the challenge cup. For two years prior to his resignation from the volunteers he wore the three stars which marked him as the champion rifle shot of his company. Mr. Roskruge has maintained his skill through the many years of his active life and his shooting forms one of the important interests of his life today. He is the National Rifle Association secretary for Arizona and secretary and treasurer of the State Rifle Association. He served as president of the Pacific Coast Rifle League during the year 1914 and secretary-treasurer of the Tucson Rifle Club.

Mr. Roskruge left his native country in 1870 and crossed the Atlantic to America, locating in Denver Colorado. He was there employed for two years by Lawrence N. Greenleaf and Gardner G. Brewer but at the end of that time, in company with sixteen others, determined to visit Arizona, which was then a wilderness. After successfully overcoming the perils of flood, drought and famine and the hostility of the apaches, the little band reached Prescott in June 1872.

He began his life in Arizona as a cook and packer for Omar H. Case, deputy U.S. surveyor who was then running the fifth standard parallel north from Partridge Creek to the Colorado River. Mr. Roskruge assisted him as chainman and in this way became connected with a profession in which he has attained a position of distinction and eminence taking his place among the state builders of Arizona. During 1874 he was in the field with U.S. Deputy Surveyor C.B. Foster and later prepared the maps and field notes for transmission to the surveyor general. He served as chief draughtsman until 1880 when he resigned the office, having been appointed U.S. Deputy land and Mineral Surveyor. He was afterward for four years county surveyor of Pima County, for three years, city engineer of Tucson and on July 1, 1893 was appointed chief clerk in the U.S. Surveyor General's office.

In May 1896 Mr. Roskruge was united in marriage with Miss Lena Wood, a native of California who was reared and educated in that state.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 200

Owen Rouse

The judge began life in the town of Florence, Boone County, Kentucky and when he was still a child his parents moved to Monroe County, Missouri, where he grew to manhood.

After receiving a good education he decided that the profession of law should be his chosen calling and in early manhood entered the office of an able lawyer, where he read for two years, and was then admitted to the bar. In order to become more familiar with the law, he attended the law college at Cleveland, Ohio and graduated from that institution with honors.Aftre this eventful episode he located in Moberly, Missouri in 1875 and there engaged in the practice of law for ten years, becoming one of the leading attorneys of that part of the State. In 1885 he was appointed by President Cleveland United States Attorney for Arizona and after coming to this Territory was an incumbent of that position until 1889, when he resigned. At the time of his resignation he had been continuously in office for twelve years, having been repeatedly elected to various positions of trust. In 1880 he was elected State Senator of Missouri and held that position for four years, his district being composed at first of Howard, Randolph and Monroe counties and afterwards of Randolph, Macon, Adair and Schuyler counties.

His district was one of the most populous and wealthy in the State. He declined to make an effort for re-nomination for State Senator and became a candidate for Attorney General of that state but was beaten in the convention for the nomination.

During the time he was U.S. Attorney he resided in Tucson and when he resigned said office he entered upon the practice of his profession in that city and at once secured a fair share of the legal business and took rank as one of the ablest attorneys of the Territory.

In April 1893, President Cleveland appointed him a member of the Supreme Court and as such he became judge of the District Court of the Second Judicial District and as such he now resides at Solomonville, Graham County, where he holds the U.S. courts in his district.

Judge Rouse married Miss Louisa Moseley, a native of Monroe County, Missouri. They have only one child living, a son. He was born August 14, 1877 and graduated from the University before he was eighteen years old.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

M. G. Samaniego

It is a pleasure to review the career of a man whose efforts have been crowned with distinction and whose life has been honorable and praiseworthy. He is now mail contractor and a successful cattle raiser of Tucson of which city he has been a resident for many years. Mr. Samaniego is a native of the State of Sonora, born July 26, 1844, and the son of Bactello and Sevelle Samaniego, both natives of Sonora. The father was a merchant and followed this occupation most successfully until his death. The mother is still living, and although eighty-five years old is fairly well preserved for that advanced age. Of the four children born to this estimable couple two survive at the present time. Mrs. James A. Lucas of Silver City, New Mexico is the daughter.

M. G. Samaniego was educated in St. Louis University, Missouri and was graduated from that institution in 1862. When the war broke out he was employed as interpreter for the Confederates of the Texas Rangers for several months and afterward went to New Mexico, where his mother was living and clerked in a store on the Rio Grande. As early as the year 1869 he removed to Tucson, Arizona--making his journey in wagons--and has made his home here for the most part since. While a resident of New Mexico he was engaged in freighting, and in 1868 he lost a fine train of five wagons and forty eight mules, all being captured and taken by the Indians. For two days he and his men fought the Indians, but as their ammunition gave out they were compelled to give up. They made their way by night to the nearest town, thirty miles distant, and thus were not captured. The same year Mr. Samaniego lost another train and stock, all stolen by the Indians, and this was a severe blow to him. However, he continued freighting and in connection conducted a store in Chihuahua. After coming to Tucson he resumed freighting and government contracting, met with excellent success and prospered right along until 1881, when he lost another train at Cedar Springs. This was in charge of his brother, Bartolo T. Samaniego, who, with all his men, except was killed by the Indians.

At that time our subject was carrying supplies to the forts and he continued in this business until 1882, when he sold out his contract and engaged in cattle raising. This he has followed ever since. He owns two fine cattle ranches and is interested in another. He also owns several thousand head of cattle and a great many horses and employs three or four men all the time. Mr. Samaniego runs the stage line from Tucson to Ora Blanco, with a connection to Nogales and he also has the mail contract to Oro Blanco and Monmouth and from Arivaca to Lassa. Aside from this he owns considerable city property and is wealthy and influential. He owns the land that first supplied Tucson with water and is interested in nearly every water project in the country. Mr. Samaniego is one of the fortune men who obtained redress from the government for depredations done by the Indians, receiving $11,000 for the last train he lost.

He represented Pima County several terms in the Territorial Legislature, was the first assessor elected in that county and has served two or three terms as a member of the Board of Supervisors. He was one of the first members of the Board of Regents of the University, holding the office of Treasurer of same and was president of the Arizona Pioneer Society for two terms.

In 1885 the Indians made a raid within fifteen miles of Tucson and captured a boy from a ranch. Mr. Samaniego gathered together thirteen men, all Mexicans except the present sheriff, R.N. Leatherwood, and started in pursuit. After a ride of about four and a half hours with a running fight they recovered the boy and took him to Martinez ranch. There they re-organized and with a force of about nineteen men started again in pursuit of the Indians. At last they overtook the same Indians just as they were making a raid on the ranch of an Italian and thus saved the whole family. They also captured twenty head of stock from the Indians. This was the last raid made by them. Mr. Samaniego has had many thrilling experiences and can relate many thrilling adventures. He has been twice wounded by the Indians, but generally returned these wounds with interest. The day after his brother was killed, October 2, 1891, our subject boarded a train for Wilcox to take charge of his brother's body and while passing Dragoon Summit raised the window and fired at some Indians, who happened to be Indian soldiers, but this Mr. Samaniego did not know. He was arrested on arriving at Wilcox for shooting at them, but through the influence of a friend was released in about fifteen minutes. Soon afterward he saw the Indians crossing the line with his brother's clothes, his wagons, stock to the number of about 400 head, which shows what good Indian soldiers were at that time.

Our subject was married in 1868 to Miss Dolorres Aguirre, a native of Chihuahua. He is a member of the Pioneers and Spanish-American Society.

Source: History of Arizona, 1898

T. D. Satterwhite

As a branch of human endeavor the profession of law is one of the most momentous and important of callings, and the man who takes upon himself the practice assumes the weightiest responsibilities that the confidence and trust of his fellow men can put upon his shoulders. It brings into play the most brilliant talents, the most extensive knowledge, the strongest sentiments, moral, spiritual, material, and its power for good or evil is vast and invincible. As a young man whose honor is above criticism, and whose ability places him in the front rank of the Arizona bar, may be mentioned Judge T. D. Satterwhite. He is a native of Columbia, S. C., born September 19, 1851, and is of French-Irish origin. His ancestors on the paternal side came to America with the Huguenots and settled in South Carolina. There the father of our subject, John Alexander Satterwhite, was born. The mother, whose maiden name was Mary Woodward, was also a product of the Palmetto State. When our subject was three years old his parents moved to Texas and there the father and mother died a few years later. He remained in that state for six years and then moved to Gilroy, California, Santa Clara County, and there young Satterwhite received his early education. He afterwards engaged in ranching in the same county and continued in this business for some time. He was three times elected city clerk of Gilroy, which office he retained until 1881. During his incumbency he applied himself to the study of law. Afterwards he came to Arizona, and in 1883 he began the practice of his profession, in which he has been eminently successful. In 1886 he was a candidate for county judge on the Democratic ticket but was defeated with the rest of the ticket. This court was soon abolished and Judge Satterwhite was appointed judge of the probate court of Pima County, by Governor Zulick; this position he held for two years. In 1893 he was appointed by Governor Hughes as a member of the Territorial Board of Equalization for the first judicial district of Arizona, and was an incumbent of that position for two years. In 1895 he was appointed attorney general to fill a vacancy and in March following was appointed and confirmed as attorney general for the full term. In 1893 he also held the office of United States commissioner. All these offices came to him unsought, except that of the county judgeship. The judge is a brother of the late Senator Satterwhite, of California. His wife was Miss Alice M. Clark, of Oswego, New York. This gentleman's integrity and unquestionable uprightness have won for him the esteem of his clients and the respect of his associates.

Source: A Historical and Biographical Record of the Territory of Arizona, Published by McFarland & Poole, Chicago, 1896, p. 444-445

Thomas Schultz

Although he was born in Bavaria, Germany, June 22, 1843, and there made his home until fifteen years old, Mr. Thomas L. Schultz is in every essential a loyal American citizen and has identified himself with the interests of his adopted country as far as it has been possible for him to do so. His parents, Ludwick and Helen C. (Peternant) Schultz, were natives of Germany and the father was professor in the military academy and an officer in the Bavarian army. His death occurred in 1850 and the mother's in 1851. Their three children were named as follows: Carl H. of San Jose, Cal., is a professor of the university there; and Caroline H., who resides in Germany. Theodore L. Schultz, the youngest of the family, like the great majority of German youths, was given the advantages of the common schools of Germany and as he was apt and ready and willing to apply himself, he acquired a good practical education, amply sufficient to fit him for the ordinary duties of life. When but fifteen years old he determined to seek his fortune in the United States and a few weeks later landed among strangers in New York City.

In the fall of 1860 he went from there to Nashville, Tenn., and there attended school for a few months, after which he enlisted in the Confederate army, Second Tennessee Infantry and later was in John H. Morgan's command. He served until the close of hostilities and in 1864 received his commission as captain of secret service in Regular Army. He was captured at Nashville in 1862, again in Ohio when with Morgan and still again in Cincinnati and when the war closed he was still in prison. In May 1865 he was released and returned to Nashville, where he remained until January 1866 and then left with a company of ex- Confederate soldiers to join Maximilian in Mexico. He was captured at New Orleans, February 10,1866 and put on parole not to leave the United States. After this he went to Lake Charles, La., and taught school until 1867, when he made his way to Chicago where he clerked for James Geary, retail jeweler at the corner of Madison and Dearborn Streets for a number of months. In November of the same year he returned to Nashville and bought a stock of goods, opened a store at Eagleville, thirty five miles from Nashville and was in business there until 1869. From there he removed to Portland, Ala., and sold goods until 1874 when in February of that year he went to California and was there engaged in sheep business in Los Angeles County. Not satisfied in the Golden State he returned to Alabama in 1878 but left for Louisiana the following year and was engaged in merchandising in that state until 1881.

Soon after he made his way to the Pacific coast again and in 1882 came to Tucson, Arizona where he engaged in mining. In 1887 he moved to Salt River Valley, where he has since made his home. Mr. Schultz has been engaged in the real estate and brokerage business ever since and has done a great deal for the growth and development of the valley.

He was married in California in 1874 to Miss Ellen M. McMahon, who is a most worthy member of the Christian Church. Mr. Schultz owns considerable property in Tempe and the Valley and makes a specialty of closing big deals in land. He also deals quite extensively in cattle.

Source: History of Arizona, 1898

Charles Shibell

There are few names of more prominence in Pima County, Arizona than that of Charles A. Shibell, the most efficient county recorder. He was born in St. Louis, Missouri, August 14, 1841 and partly educated in the public schools of that city, but later finished in Iowa College. In 1860 he crossed the plains to California with a good sized company and stopped at Sacramento where he was employed as clerk in a general store. In 1862 he turned his face to the south and arrived in Tucson Arizona May 20 of that year, making the trip as a teamster for the government. He was with the command that captured Tucson on that day and then went with this command to the Rio Grande, where he remained until January 1, 1863, afterwards returning to Tucson. Here he was in the employ of the government until January 1, 1864, Tucson being the headquarters for the command troops, and handled supplies from Ft. Yuma to Tucson, a distance of 300 miles. In the spring of 1864 the troops were ordered to the Rio Grande to be mustered out, their term having expired and Mr. Shibell remained at Tucson.

In the month of June 1864, he went to Cerro Colorado Mine, about seventy five miles southwest of Tucson and was there engaged in mining for about a year. In May of the following year he went to a place called Sonoita River about thirty miles south of Tubac, and remained there until the early part of 1867. While there he was attacked by Apache Indians and two or three of his men were killed. On account of their constant depredations he was obliged to leave that place and in 1867 he came to Tucson. Soon after he made application and became inspector of customs for the district of El Paso, which position he retained until 1869. After this he kept a station twenty six miles northwest of Tucson, known as Desert Station, and was thus occupied until the latter part of 1872, when he embarked in the transportation business between Tucson and Yuma.

In the latter part of 1874 he became interested in politics and on the first of January of the following year was appointed deputy sheriff under W.S. Oury and was an incumbent of that position for two years. Later he was elected sheriff, was in office two terms and then, upon retiring in 1881, engaged in the hotel business, which he conducted as proprietor of the Palace Hotel until 1883. The two years following this he was engaged in merchandising and in 1887 was again appointed deputy sheriff, this time under Eugene O. Shaw, and was thus occupied until January 1, 1889.

In the fall of that year he was elected county recorder and is now discharging the duties of that position in a very able manner and to the satisfaction of all concerned. There are few men who have acquitted themselves in office more creditably or who are more worthy of respect than Mr. Shibell. He is one of the pioneers of this part of Arizona and has witnessed most of its wonderful development.

Mr. Shibell's first marriage occurred in 1868 and four children were born to this union: Mary A., Lillie M., Charles B. and Mercedes A. In 1877 Mr. Shibell married Miss Nellie Norton and the following children have been given them: Lionel J. and Orpha. Mrs. Shibell is a worthy member of the Episcopal Church.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Albert Steinfeld

Albert Steinfeld is a native of Hanover, Germany, born December 23, 1854. He came to America with his parents when eight years old and received a thorough education in New York City, where he made his home until 1871. For two years he was employed in the wholesale dry goods house of George Bliss and Company, and later with Eldridge, Dunham and Company, now Dunham, Buckley and Company, first in the office and later in the hosiery department of said concern. From there he went to Denver, accepting a position in the dry goods house of his uncle, Charles Ballin, but made his way to Tucson in January 1872, entering the employ of his uncles, A. and L. Zeckenorf.

In 1878 he was admitted as a partner in the present firm and has since had the management of the business at this point. He is a very popular man in the community where he has been known from boyhood up, and particularly amongst the business men who hold him in very high esteem. He has held many positions of public and private trust and is at present president of the Chamber of Commerce and Vice-President of the Board of Trade.

Mr. Steinfeld was married on February 15, 1883 to Miss Bettina V. Donau of Denver, Colorado and they have three children, Lester A., Irene and Harold.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

Hiram Stevens

Hiram S. Stevens was born in Western Vermont on March 20, 1832 and came to Arizona in 1855. When a youth of 19 he enlisted as a U.S. soldier and came to New Mexico in Company I, First United States Dragoons. On being discharged from the service in 1855, he came to Arizona where he resided continuously up to the time of his death. At first he was a sporting man, then afterwards a trader and speculator and in 1874 he was counted one of the richest men in the Territory. At this time he was elected Delegate to Congress. The story told of how his election was accomplished is illustrative of the wild and woolly way of doing things at that time. The gambling fraternity was a very numerous and influential citizenship of Arizona. R.C. McCormick served several terms in Congress and in seeking reelection was supported by the administration which was a hard force to overcome. Stevens was equal to the occasion. He took twenty five thousand dollars from his campaign fund and sent his agent to all the prominent gamblers in the Territory saying" Bet one thousand; bet two thousand; three thousand; according to the influence of the man and his following on Stevens being elected and if you win, return to me the amount which you have wagered, keeping your winning." In this way he enlisted the active support of the sporting fraternity of Arizona. He served two terms as Delegate to Congress, several terms in the Territorial Legislature and two terms as Treasurer of Pima County where he died on March 24, 1893.

Source: History of Arizona, Vol II, Thomas E. Farish, 1915, pg 198

John Stone

The Tucson Post prints the following: "Stone Avenue was named for John F. Stone. Just how or why he came to the country no one now living seems to know. He was a man of considerable means and of magnificent physique. Of powerful build and wearing a heavy black beard he stood distinguished among his fellow men. A rich gold vein had been discovered in Apache Pass and upon this he built a small reduction mill. While en route to Tucson with the proceeds of the first month's run, he was killed by Indians in Dragoon Pass about 1500 yeads east of the old stage station. The driver of the stage, two soldiers and two other civilians were killed at the same time. Sometime in the early 1860's he built the first house on Stone Avenue. It was situated on the southwest corner of Stone Avenue and McCormick Street and is still standing."

Mr. A.F. Banta, in the Apache County "Observer" gives the following account: General Stone as he was known in New Mexico was Adjutant-General of New Mexico under Governor Henry Connelly, appointed Governor in 1861. After the battle of Apache Canyon, the defeat of the Texans under Sibley, and their expulsion from the territory via Fort Bliss, Stone resigned the Adjutant-generalship and came down to Albuquerque where in partnership with a name named Ewing and opened the Union Hotel, situated facing the east wall of the old Catholic Church and on the east side of the church plaza in old Albuquerque. When the writer left Albuquerque in 1863 for Arizona, Stone and Ewing were still running the Union Hotel.

Source: History of Arizona, Vol II, Thomas E. Farish, 1915, pg 206

Albert Waters

Albert L. Waters, of Tucson, has been identified with various important business enterprises and his sound judgment has made his opinions valuable on questions of policy and control.

Mr. Waters was born in Michigan, March 2, 1869 and acquired a high school education in that state. In 1890 he received the degree of B.S. from the Michigan Agricultural College and three years later was graduated in mining engineering from the Michigan College of Mines. He came to Arizona in 1895 and became connected with the Old Dominion Copper Mining and Smelting Company at Globe and later with the Phelps-Dodge Company there. He started as a common laborer but rose steadily, mastering the details of work and management of each department with which he was connected and resigning after two years as superintendent of the smelting plant. He afterward spent a number of years in Mexico where he was connected with mining and in this way he broadened his interests and developed his business ability. Mr. Waters in 1913 was managing the Twin Buttes Mining Company including its railroad and the Mineral Hill Consolidated Copper Company.

In 1898 Mr. Waters married Miss Maude Shanley of Globe and they have two children: Alice T. and Albert L. Jr.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg 595

William Whitmore

Dr. William V. Whitmore, whose broad knowledge of the science of medicine and keen appreciation of the responsibilities which rest upon him have made him one of the most capable physicians and surgeons in Tucson, was born in Sagadahoc County Maine, April 16, 1862, a son of Thomas P. and Esther M. (Given) Whitmore. The father was a native of Maine and of English ancestry, while the mother was a native of Long Island and of Scotch-Irish descent. On the paternal side the Doctor traces his ancestry back to one of the Mayflower passengers.

He acquired his early education in the public schools of his native county and in 1885 was graduated from Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. He spent one year in the medical department of Columbia University and then entered the medical department of the University of California receiving his degree of M.D. in 1890. He took a one yearhospital course in the county hospital at Los Angeles, adding the benefits of practical experience to his formal training, and then opened an office for the practice of his profession at Wilmington, near Los Angeles.

After a year and a half spent at that place, Dr. Whitener came to Tucson, where he has been active in professional work since April 1892. He has built up a very large practice, his extensive patronage coming to him as an expression of the trust and confidence reposed in him by the general public. He is constantly broadening his knowledge by research and investigation and keeps in touch with the most advanced thought of his profession through his membership in various medical organizations, in all of which he has gained positions of distinction. He has been for three terms president of the Pima Medical County Society, is past president of the Arizona State Medical Association and was delegate from Arizona to the convention of the American Medical Association held in St. Louis in 1910. In addition he has been for seven years a member of the board of state medical examiners. He is one of the owners of the Rodgers Hospital at Tucson.

Dr. Whitmore has been twice married. On April 16, 1891 he wedded Miss Lulu W. Hill who passed away leaving one son, William V. Jr. On December 31, 1902 he was united in marriage to Miss Opal Le Baron McGauhey, by whom he had a son Paul G.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913, pg. 13

J. S. Wood

Hon. J.S. Wood, who is now nearly sixty eight years old was born in Virginia, that grand old mother of states, January 1, 1829, in Albemarle County to the union of Milton and Jeanette (Field) Wood, both natives of the same state. For many years the father was a merchant of Charlotte, Virginia and was a soldier in the War of 1812, holding the commission of lieutenant. In the year 1842 he removed to Missouri and located in Saline County, where he took up a large tract of land and engaged in agricultural pursuits. There he remained until his death, in 1860. The mother of our subject died in 1893. Milton Wood was an influential and prominent citizen and held many responsible positions. He was active in all military gatherings, was a major in the State Militia of Missouri and was inspector of troops during the Mormon trouble. He was well known throughout the state of Missouri during the early days. To Mr. and Mrs. Wood were born ten children, seven sons and three daughters, eight of whom survive at the present time.

Of these our subject is the second in order of birth. He reached mature years in his native state, attended the public schools, and later, after coming with his parents to Missouri, engaged in merchandising in the town of Marshall, where he was in business for one year. In 1849 he crossed the plains to California and after this long and hazardous journey on pack mules, engaged in mining at Woods Creek, which received its name from him, and which is well known throughout the country. One year later he re-crossed the plains to Missouri, bought many cattle and drove them across the plains to California. He did not escape entirely free from trouble with the Indians but had a number of skirmishes, had one man killed and a number of horses shot. Mr. Wood dealt in stock after reaching California, with headquarters at Sacramento and there remained until 1857, when his family joined him, making the journey to California by way of the isthmus. He afterwards made a location in California, where he had a stock ranch and about the year 1860 was elected sheriff of his county in California, serving four years. Following this he conducted a large wheat ranch of a thousand acres for several years, and in 1874 came to Arizona, locating in Tucson, where he has since made his home.

A few months after his arrival here he was appointed Probate judge by Governor Safford, and at the same time was engaged in merchandising, which he continued for two years. He afterwards served two terms as County Treasurer of Pima County, and with the exception of four years since 1874 has served as Probate Judge, thus making an official career of twenty one years here and four as sheriff in California, twenty five in all.

Judge Wood is still hale and hearty and has ever been noted for native abilities and force of character. He is well known throughout the Territory.

The Judge was first married to Miss Virginia Spedden of Baltimore, Maryland and to them were given three children, two now living: Estella and Ella. His second union was with Miss Sallie A. Marshall, and they have six children, John M., in business in San Diego; Lena; Robert L.; Sallie; Herbert and Leon. Mrs. Wood is a devout member of the Presbyterian church and a most estimable woman.

While a resident of California Judge Wood was engaged in teaming, freighting from Sacramento to Virginia City and keeping from five to sixteen mule teams on the road. He can relate many interesting incidents connected with his numerous trips across the plains and while freighting and it is quite a pleasure to listen to him.

Source: History of Arizona, 1898

Gertrude Woodward

Reared in an atmosphere where interest centered upon activities for the benefit of mankind, Gertrude Hughes Woodward naturally entered upon such work and her influence has long been a potent factor in advancing those things which work for progress, improvement and higher ideals. She was born in Meadville, Pennsylvania, in July 1869, a daughter of Governor L.C. and Josephine B. Hughes, both of whom have been active workers for Arizona's growth. She was brought by her mother to Arizona in 1872 and was reared amid early pioneer conditions. After attending St. Joseph's Academy at Tucson she continued her studies in Snell's Seminary for Young Ladies at Oakland, California, spending two years there, after which she entered Linden Hall Seminary, a Moravian institution at Lititz, Pennsylvania. Following her graduation in 1888 she remained for a year's post-graduate study and later became a student in the New England Conservatory of Music at Boston devoting four years there to the study of music, dramatic art, physical culture and languages being graduated with the class of 1894. She returned to Tucson to accept the professorship of dramatic art, English History and physical culture at the University of Arizona, being the first woman instructor appointed a member of the university faculty. She remained in that position for four years and in 1898 she became the wife of professor Sherman Woodward, a member of the university faculty, who continued work in Arizona for a time and was then tendered and accepted a more advanced position as a professor of hydraulics and electrical engineering in the University of Iowa.

In 1911 Mrs. Woodward went abroad accompanied by her two children, Miriam and Ronald, that they might have the benefits of European travel. Mrs. Woodward was reared in a home where the deepest interest was felt in all the vital problems and questions of the day. She has also worked for suffrage and for temperance.

Source: Arizona, The Youngest State, 1913 pg. 645

Louis Zeckendorf

Louis Zeckendorf was born in Hanover, Germany, April 6, 1838, and came to this country in 1854, where he joined, at Santa Fe, New Mexico his brother Aaron. Shortly afterward was started the firm of A & L. Zeckendorf, from which small beginnings the present vast commercial enterprise has grown. In 1866 a branch house was started at Tucson. In 1872 Aaron Zeckendorf died and the business was continued by Louis and William as Zeckendorf Brothers, until 1878 when William Zeckendorf retired and the same was continued by the present firm of L. Zeckendorf and Company. During all these years of commercial life this firm has always met all business obligations at their maturity, a condition seldom equaled in a business career of so many years. Panics and failures have struck the country at various times, business has had its ups and downs, but this concern for its forty two years of business career has withstood the tempest like the rock of ages.

Louis Zeckendorf was married December 23, 1870 to Miss Mathilde Z. Leventrill of South Carolina. They have one son, Arthur Louis. Mr. Zeckendorf is a Mason and a member of Enterprise lodge No. 206 since 1865 and resides in New York City.


In measuring the resources of a country it is well enough to speak of its mining and agricultural interests, ect. but there is one true barometer to which we turn, and which will surely indicate the pulse of the people. No sooner does the Aeronoid barometer indicate the varying conditions of the atmosphere, than does the mercantile barometer point out of the true state of the country. In judging of the condition of a locality one naturally looks to the best instrument to be found and this would lead to the one that has been tried and proved true, to the one that has seen the longest service. In looking around for a representative mercantile concern, we are immediately referred to the well known and renowned firm of L. Zeckendorf and Company, established in Santa, New Mexico in 1854 and in Tucson since 1866. Here, from a small beginning has now grown one of the largest and most prominent commercial enterprises in the Southwest. They carry a stock of general merchandise consisting of almost any and everything required in this section of the country. They sell at both wholesale and retail and distribute their goods over Southern and Central Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. These vast sections of country are visited regularly by representatives of the concern and no city of hamlet, however large or small, exists in this district but what does more or less business with this concern. Through buying all their goods in large quantities, direct from factories and first hands, they are enabled to distribute them again not along in competition with other large jobbing centers, but in many instances it is a positive advantage for the trade, to draw their supplies from them, both on account of the prices and the time saved in delivery of same. Their business is divided off into departments, much after the fashion of the modern department store seen in our large Eastern cities and the management of each department is under a competent and trustworthy manager, who is held responsible for the result of same. The principal departments consist of shelf and heavy hardware, agricultural implements, paints and oils, tin and hollow ware, groceries an provisions, dry and fancy goods, clothing, gents' furnishing goods, boots and shoes, furniture, carpets, wall paper and shades.

On entering the main store, corner Main, Pennington and Pearl Streets, one is at once surprised at the vastness and large supplies of goods carried in each department and one asks how it is possible to dispose of such quantities of goods in a town the size of Tucson. When one learns, however, the territory tributary to Tucson and takes into consideration the trade that depends on supplies from this point and this firm in particular, it is easily explained. The main store is 85x188 feet, one story and basement. The space from floor to ceiling is 20 feet about midway. A gallery with shelves encircles the entire space so that no room is lost and every available space is utilized by the various lines of goods carried. The front part of the store is designated for retailing, and the back part for wholesaling. Convenient rooms for shipping, receiving rooms and also offices are distributed in the building. On the opposite corner a building 65 x 150 contains the furniture department. This is under the separate management of Mr. E.W. Bowers. In this store is carried a large line of furniture and upholstery goods, carpets, oil, cloths, linoleum, mattings, rugs, shades, pictures, oil paintings, wall papers, all to suit the taste and purse of almost everybody. They also have an upholstery room in the back part of this building where they manufacture mattresses and do all kinds of upholstery work. Joining the depot on the Southern Pacific Railway track they have a large one story and basement warehouse 50 x 150 feet where they carry all goods in original packages and from where all wholesale orders are shipped direct to their numerous customers. The warehouse is enclosed by a large corral 150 x 200 where under large sheds are carried hay and grain, farming and mining machinery, also hides, pelts and wool. Strangers, not acquainted with the volume of business handled by this firm seldom realize the enormous business transactions consummated here. They also handle, as above stated, hides, pelts and wool and are the only concern in Southern Arizona who handle same in car load shipments to Eastern tanneries and markets. The firm consists of Louis Zeckedorf, who resides in New York and attends to the business there, and Albert Steinfeld, of Tucson who has the entire business here under his supervision.

Source: History of Arizona, 1896

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