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1891 Arizona

The following was extracted from Arizona, A Comprehensive Review of It's History, Counties, Principal Cities, Resources and Prospects, Together with Notices of the Business Men and Firms Who Have Made the Territory, by H C Stinson, published in 1891.

[Page 75]

As already indicated, in the introduction to this sketch of the Territory of Arizona, Pima County was the first part settled by Europeans, the Mission Fathers having "broken ground" - both in the natural and in the spiritual sense, by opening mines and missions with praiseworthy industry and no little measure of success. The causes of their ultimate abandonment of both undertakings - or rather their forcible expulsion from the scenes of their labors - have been, also, set forth; as likewise have been the repeated subsequent attempts to settle up the country, and the obstacles which thwarted those attempts for so many long and troublous years. Pima was also the first political division of Arizona organized under American rule, having been made a county in 1864 by the first Territorial legislature. It was, at first, bounded on the north, by the Gila River; on the south, by the boundary line of Sonora; on the west, by the Gulf of California; and on the east, by the line of 113° 20' west longitude; which limits included the greater part of the famous Gadsden purchase. Its bounds have, however, been gradually contracted by the cutting off from it of Cochise, and parts of Pinal and Graham counties. It now contains about 10,500 square miles, and is bounded on the north, by Maricopa and Pinal counties; on the east, by Cochise County; on the west, by Yuma; and on the south by the Mexican boundary line.

The general topography of the county has been incidentally described in the general description of the Territory; but a more detailed notice may be found interesting.

The country between Tucson, which is the county seat and the oldest city in the Territory, consists of an alternation of lofty mountains, rolling foot-hills and grass-covered plains; and the same description fits the eastern portion of the county, stretching to the boundary line separating it from Cochise. The northern part of the county consists of arid plains, the monotonous expanse of which is only broken by the abrupt and massive Santa Catalinas. The western portion, lying along the Gulf of California, is a vast rolling plain, with here and there a lone peak, or butte, rising out of it, and presenting a jagged, broken and uninviting appearance. Except for the mineral wealth contained in those rocky peaks, they would offer no inducement whatever for the foot of man to explore them, for the surrounding plains are arid and covered with a sparse sprinkling of coarse grass and scrub mesquite.

The other mountain ranges, besides the Santa Catalinas, are the Santa Rita, the Patagonia, the Whetstone and the Atascoso ranges, all of which lie in the southern and eastern part of the county.

The only river of any consequence in Pima County is the Santa Cruz, the course of which is from the Mexican boundary north to Maricopa, and its peculiarity a trick of disappearing in its gravelly bed and reappearing at greater or lesser intervals. Wherever it condescends to show itself, so as to be made available for irrigation, the country is a very garden of fertility and productiveness. Indeed, independent of this, in the portion of the county from Tucson south to the Sonora boundary, there are many valleys embosomed in the Santa Rita and Patagonia ranges which are of great beauty and richness, and form ideal grazing grounds.

But little can be added on the history of the county to what has already been said, under the head of the early history of Arizona, for, up to its organization as a Territory in 1863, the annuls of Arizona were synonymous with those of what was afterwards called Pima County. Its early history is a checquered record of perils, outrages and vicissitudes undergone by those who made the first attempts to civilize and settle it; and, even after its acquisition from Mexico by the United States, it was in a condition little, if any, better than anarchy, bo far was it removed from the seat of anything approaching the semblance of government. The country was, moreover, swept periodically by the ruthless Apaches on the one hand, and raided systematically by thieving outlaws from Sonora on the other, until it came almost to be regarded as moon-struck madness for any one to propose to settle there.

The close of the civil war and the placing of the Apaches on reservations, however, marked the beginning of an era of prosperity, rapid settlement and substantial progress; and, to-day, the opening up of its magnificent resources in mines and grazing lands is being proceeded with, with a rapidity and success which cannot fail to give Pima County, in a short time, a very high place indeed among the rich and prosperous portions of the Southwest.

The principal resources of Pima County at present, are mining, agriculture and stock. Irrigated lands will produce two crops a year of almost everything planted, while in hay from four to six crops are regularly and successfully harvested. The plowing season is from November to March for hay and grain; July for corn, wheat, barley, oats and potatoes for winter seeding; sorghum, corn and millet for summer planting. Vegetables are cultivated all the year round. A novel sight to an Eastern stranger in Tucson during the winter, is the Chinese vegetable wagon, which makes regular trips every day in the year.

But while agriculture in the county is yet in its infancy, sufficient has been accomplished to demonstrate the success to be attained and the possibilities to be looked forward to. What has been done in the way of agriculture, so far, has been largely experimental, and in every instance the soil has proved itself a marvel in richness ; with proper irrigation it needs only to be scratched, and the yield is comparable with that of any other known country in the world. The average hay crop for each single cutting is about two tons to the acre, and thirty to fifty bushels of wheat and barley. Fruit trees blossom in February and March and the fruit
begins to ripen in May. Grape vines have produced from two to three crops during the season, and many small garden vineyards in the county yield grapes that for size of bunch and berry, and richness of flavor, far excel any grapes brought to this market from California, from whence all fruit was received till within the past two or three years. The olive and palm flourish, and in some instances the castor bean has withstood the winter, making a good-sized tree.

More attention is given to stock-raising now than to any other one industry, and a low estimate would place the number of cattle browsing on the succulent grasses and mesquite of this county at 150,000 head, representing a value approximating 11,500,000. During the last spring there were 15,000 two-year-old steers shipped to Montana, realizing for their owners nearly $200,000 in cash, besides supplying the regular demand for beef cattle from California.

The following abstract from the assessment roll of Pima County for the year 1889, gives a fair estimate of the assessable value of property in the county:

No. acres
Value of improvements 125,159.00
Value of lots, town and city 251,356.00
Value of improvements 646,457.00
No. miles railroad, 125 910,419.64
No. horses, 5,311 91,083.00
No. mules, 303 8,555.00
No. asses, 70 706.00
No. cattle, 109,260 952,961.50
No. sheep, 1,604 1,604.00
No. swine, 183 450.00
No. goats, 80 , 80.00
Gross value all other property 600,388.-50

Gross amount all property. $3,878,793.64
Loss exempt act. widows 58,513.00

Total amount taxable property $3,820,280.64

Number of miles railroad as reported by a Territorial Board of Equalization, report signed by J. T. Meador, Chairman and Auditor, and Henry J. Andrews, Secretary, 125,65-100 miles; value, $896,404.44.

The indebtedness of the county aggregates $275,000, of which $250,000 is in bonds, the remaining $25,000 being outstanding in warrants on the several funds of the county.

The rate of taxation in the county is a fraction less than 3 per cent. In the city of Tucson it is a cent more. Now while these taxes appear high, people can better afford to pay them than people in the Eastern States can pay half the amount.

The population of the County, is, in round numbers, 19,000. The total vote cast at the last election was a little less than 2,000. Many miners in the hills failed to vote, and the large population of nonvoting Mexicans not being accorded that privilege, accounts for the small size of the vote cast.

When the beauties and healthfulness of the climate of Southern Arizona become more generally known, and the great boon to the afflicted its soft winter temperature affords, thousands of people from the Northern and Eastern States will pass their winters in our sun-kissed land and grow strong and robust under its healthful skies. Our winters are perpetual spring-time, entirely free from waves of intense frigidity, and sufficiently warm for plenty of out-door exercise. No one who has not experienced our climatic advantages can have any conception of its wonderful perfection. Invalids come to our county seeking health, and go away in the spring-time with a new lease of life. Men who have been pronounced by their physicians as beyond recovery, with consumption, have grown strong, and apparently sound and well, in this climate. They remain in and about the towns during the balmy days of fall, winter and spring, and seek the mountain shades and cooling breezes in summer, growing stronger with each passing day. When we have suitable accommodations for the care of the afflicted, and for the diversion of those who come to enjoy this paradisiacal climate, we can extend a general invitation to the denizens of the cold and frozen North to come and sit beside us and experience some of the delights of the finest climate on earth. The three or four months of the annual heated term in Southern Arizona is a great bugaboo to people who have never experienced the delights of even its warmest summer weather. The general expression is, "But oh, your terribly hot summers !" These people forget the sultry days and still more sultry nights of their Eastern summer-season, when even sleep is banished by the stifling heat that is never felt here. In every season they meet with weather changes far more disagreeable than the even and moderate heat of our summers of bright sunshine. Our atmosphere is dry and pure, and by its absorption of the perspiration a cooling effect is produced, thereby giving a real temperature of one hundred degrees the seeming temperature of but seventy-five in the Eastern States. More real suffering is experienced in the East, with the thermometer at eighty degrees, than we have at any time in Southern Arizona when it has reached one hundred and twelve degrees for a few hours in the middle of the day. By adding grass and shrubbery and shade trees, as well as vines to keep the sun's rays
from one's windows and doors, their force is lessened, and one can experience no more delightful climate anywhere on earth than amid such surroundings. But the crowning glory of this climate, even in the hottest weather, is its cool nights. One's rest need never be broken by such sultriness as prevails in the East, and from the time the sun sinks to rest at night, until it rises again, a gentle and refreshing coolness is spread out over the land like a benison from heaven. Nothing can compare with our climate, anywhere and even with the summer heat our causes for complaint are far less than those of other States and Territories, and as an all-the-year round climate nothing can surpass it. The winters of Arizona are not only conducive to health, but there are other considerations worthy of observance. In the East the winter is the season of great suffering among the poor, and great expense among the more fortunate. Winter consumes what summer produces. Large supplies of provisions and fuel must be provided for the family. Stock must be housed and fed five or six months, and during the same time the ground is frozen constantly, and little or nothing can be done in agricultural or other out-door pursuits. In short, the winter is a season of vacation to the rich, and of extreme suffering to the poor. With us it is quite different. Nature is kind alike to rich and poor, man and beast. Our stock herds graze on good pasture lands the year round. The revenues of the rich are constant, and the poor find abundant means for support and comfort. We may be accused of prejudice in favor of Arizona, but our statements are facts in the true sense of the word. Nature has highly blessed this Territory - this county in particular - and a little energy on the part of man, is all that is required to make Arizona the most luxuriant spot on the continent of America.

An era of prosperity is approaching Pima County, and it is heralded by a dozen signs that does not admit to question. We have had a long season of dullness, a season of inactivity and discouraging features. The evil of this spell has been particularly felt on account of following in the wake of years of unprecedented prosperity, when money was plenty and business throughout our territory remarkably good. The advent of the railroad; the discovery of hidden treasures of the Tombstone district; the heavy productions of the precious metals throughout the several rich mining districts of the Territory tended, with many things, to make the period from '78 '83, a most propitious one for the enterprising, thrifty business man. We had a veritable boom that was carried along by a force of circumstances begotten of extraordinary occurrences; this unusual state of affairs proved ephemeral, and commencing with '85 came a heavy offset to the preceding years, in the shape of stagnation in general business, and an almost absolute cessation of mining sales and mine developments. Those who had reaped a rich harvest during the honeyed days between '78 and '83 forgot in the moment of depression, the duty they owed the territory that had rocked them in the lap of luxury, and turning their backs on Arizona, they drifted to California in the wake of the boom, or sought what they considered more promising fields. On the contrary, the far-sighted, energetic business man made the best of the existing circumstances, cut down expenses, and prepared in every conceivable way to weather the financial stress that was unquestionably upon the country for the time being. To these men belong the rewards that will be reaped within the next few years. They are not of that class of humanity that drift with the wind of wild rumors and great promises. They do not think that every other place is better than their own, and that they can make money in any place, except the place they actually live in, but they look at the matter philosophically, and say to themselves, when good times strike other places, we will have our legitimate share of the prosperity. Most of the other class that left us have come back like the prodigal son, are content to stay at home, and take their chances with Arizona. Foreign capital, particularly English and German capital, is reaching out for a country of profitable investment with a longer arm than at any time heretofore in the history of our nation; a brighter mineral outlook has not been seen for years. A good mine can find a ready purchaser, and it is evident that a man developing his prospect into a mine, is putting his money into as good a stock of goods as the dry-goods man or the grocer, and one that is equally marketable. Careful methodical work begets economy, and economical work on prospects begets mines. Our prospectors have been loath to linger in town looking for purchasers for undeveloped prospects rather than have mines that will stand the light of inspection, and will sell.

A better feeling pervades every branch of business. More strangers will be among us this winter than at any time for years before. The city shows marked signs of improvement, property is being repaired and beautified, while many new buildings arc being erected. The Building and Loan Association is largely instrumental in the happy state of affairs. New enterprises or irrigation, etc., are being agitated. Where irrigation schemes are good enough to invite capital it will be readily forthcoming, and forthcoming without the suspension of great tracts of our lands by the government. Such a suspension as some of our citizens anticipate would set Arizona back twenty-five years. The Spanish land grant suspensions are sufficiently unfortunate without farther suspensions of the public domain. What Arizona wants is a natural development with private capital, unless government aid can be secured without any sacrifice on our part. It is not to be supposed that it is the intention to want to have lands suspended from entry that would require unwarrantable amounts of money to irrigate. Such irrigation as is contemplated is naturally such as is practicable from a financial standpoint. Then again, after lands were selected as feasible they might be tied up under suspension twenty years waiting for Congress to make appropriations. No, what we want is to be left on our merits, and time will demonstrate the values within our boundaries in a satisfactory manner. On this eve of prosperity, we say, let our progress be natural, and good times, when they come, will come to stay with us.

Tucson, the Oldest City in Arizona.

TUCSON (pronounced "Chook-son" by the Pima Indians), may be said to have been founded in 1694, when the Spaniards established a fort there for the protection of the Mission of St. Xavier. Its site was well chosen, not only on account of its being one well calculated for defense but also, because of the beautiful and striking scenery surrounding the mesa on which it is located. It stands on the right bank of the Santa Cruz River at a point 2r)0 miles west of the Great Colorado, and 300 miles north of Guaymas. The valley in which the Tucson mesa stands is surrounded on all sides by mountains whose precipitous sides - though at a long distance - seem to wall in the city as with giant ramparts. Those ranges are the Santa Catalinas, the Santa Ritas and the Sierratas. The mise en scene thus formed is strikingly beautiful and impressive.

The city was, for many years of its early history, in a state of stagnation, so far as any progress, increase of population, or material advancement was concerned. It had, of course, its share of the troubles which preceded the removal of the Jesuits, the failure of the Missions under their successors, the San Franciscans, and the final collapse of the propaganda under the edict of the Mexican Government. But, up to the time of the breaking out of the gold fever, and the consequent rush of eager adventurers to the place where rumor said the precious metal was to be had for the picking up, the village (it was then nothing more) was in a state closely resembling coma. When, however, the Southern Pacific Railway reached it, the era of its true advancement began, and it has, ever since, been growing in prosperity, population and wealth, until, to-day, it is marked by all the signs of enterprise, push and general go-ahead-ativeness in its citizens, which form the best guarantee of permanent development and stable prosperity.

The city is the curious result of the grafting of the modern on the ancient civilization. The streets of the newer portion are wide and commodious, and are lined with imposing edifices, which would do credit to any metropolis; while the older portion has narrow, torturous streets, formed by low, flat-roofed, adobe buildings, where a heterogeneous population of Mexicans and Indians live in more or less harmony, and (it must be admitted) rather more than less squalor. This portion is simply a replica of the average Mexican town across the border, and its presence, in immediate contiguity to the handsome, and even elegant, part of the city, where the America and do business, makes a contrast which is no less unusual than, to the stranger, at least, it is inexplicable.

Tucson possesses, as has been said, many very fine public buildings, built mostly of brick and stone. Among the more prominent may be mentioned the County Courthouse, constructed of brick, faced with stone and surmounted by a lofty tower. It was erected at a cost of $75,000. The Roman Catholic Cathedral is a very fine structure, with a lofty spire, and of decided architectural beauty. The various Protestant denominations are also provided with handsome and commodious places of worship, and the High School, on the Military Plaza, which cost 145,000, is a model, both as regards design and interior arrangement, of what such a building should be. The private residences are so numerous, and, withal, so elegant, that it would be invidious to select any for special mention; and space will not permit of their being all enumerated, still less described.

As a commercial center and distributing point, Tucson easily takes the lead among the cities of the Territory. Its merchants, of whom a number of the most prominent will be noticed at length hereafter, carry larger stocks of goods, and do a more extensive trade than is possible for those of any other city in Arizona to do, owing to the fact that they do a very large portion of their business with Sonora and other parts of Northern Mexico.

In all other respects, Tucson may fairly claim to be as well equipped with all modern conveniences and appliances for securing the comfort of its citizens, and of the sojourners within its gates, as any contemporary city of its size anywhere. Its streets and buildings are well lighted by gas and electricity; it has an abundant supply of water, which is piped from the Santa Cruz River, from a point seven miles up that stream; it has a handsome opera house, a fine public library, and, in short, everything that could be wished for by the highly-developed taste of the modern citizen - be he business man or man of leisure.

Commerce and Industries of Tucson.

Following will be found a list of the leading commercial enterprises and industries which contribute to the prosperity and progress of Tucson, and which show, by the marked success which has attended the efforts of those who have undertaken and carried them on, what a splendid field Tucson offers for the man of energy, industry and business capacity.


While Tucson may not be as a whole considered a manufacturing town, in comparison with some of her more enterprising eastern rivals, she can still make a better showing in this direction than any town of like population in the southwestern territories.


There are two flouring mills in Tucson, one steam and the other water power. The former is owned by the Eagle Milling Company, with Mr. Leo Goldschmidt as manager. The latter is owned by Messrs. G. Allison & Sons, who purchased the property about two years since. The Eagle Milling Company's mill has recently been remodeled and partly rebuilt, and machinery of the latest and most improved pattern has been put in. Rollers have been substituted for the old time burrs, and its capacity has been increased to one hundred barrels per day.


The smelting works are situated about a mile and a half north of Tucson, on the Santa Cruz River, where water is abundant and conveniently at hand. The track of the Southern Pacific company runs within a short distance of its site, and a siding has already been constructed for the delivery of ores to the smelter. It is capable of handling thirty tons of ore per day. When the smelter starts work, which will be in the near future, it will not only provide employment for a large number of men about the works, but will be the means of giving work to every miner and prospector within a radius of thirty miles, having ore of sufficiently high grade to allow a profitable margin on its reduction.


William Zcckendorf, President; H. D. Underwood, Secretary. Foremost among the social organizations of Tucson, is the Commercial Club. It has for its object not only the divertment of its local members, but it makes a special point of the entertainment of visiting strangers. Everyone who has paid Tucson a call, no matter how short, has left enamored with the social cordiality which he everywhere received and especially at the hands of the Commercial Club. The occasional winter hops which are given by this Club are most enjoyable affairs and add much to the pleasure of living in Tucson.


The spiritual wants of the people of Tucson are well attended to. There are five places of worship in the city, namely: the Catholic, Congregational, Episcopal, Baptist, and Methodist temples. Each one of these has a large congregation and it is to be noted that Tucson is remarkable for the number of its citizens that are church-going members of society.


There are five hotels in this city, besides numerous restaurants and lodging houses, and all are provided with the conveniences necessary to the comfort of guests. Our climate has so clearly proven its superiority over all others in the United States in its health-restoring qualities, that each winter brings with it a large influx of health-seekers, and the hotels are all arrayed with a view of affording especial accommodations to the visiting sick, besides furnishing the usual conveniences to travelers.


Tucson is happily provided with excellent markets. Being the center of a vast cattle country, the choicest beef is here to be obtained at a very small cost. Vegetables, which are raised in the adjoining valley-lands, can be bought at an almost nominal price. Fruits, fish, oysters, etc., are always kept on hand fresh, at our market places, and are sold at very reasonable rates, so much so, that the expense of good living in Tucson is even less than in many of the Eastern cities.


Our theater, under the management of the enterprising Mr. Wm. Reid, is a well conducted one. All the best troupes traveling east and west stop over in Tucson, and its residents are very frequently afforded an evening's entertainment in this way.

With all its mammoth enterprises, and the advantages and conveniences which Tucson possesses, it may well claim to be one of the most important cities in the Southwest without any brag, blow, or boom; its advancement has been gradual but steady, in the past. Many new industries have been inaugurated, and many more will soon be so, and with the energy, enterprise and activity, which its citizens are displaying, it is safe to predict, that Tucson is destined to become one of the cosmopolitan cities of the West.

The railroad officials in this city report an average receipt of 1,500,000 lbs. of general merchandise every thirty days, the freight charges on which amount to over i|!50,000. It will thus be seen that Tucson merchants pay over a half million dollars yearly for freight charges alone.


This institution is worthy of a special mention, inasmuch as it has done a great amount of good for this city during the short time in which it has been in existence. It was established in 1888, and already the Association have furnished about $17,500 in loans, all of which has been put into new residences, ranging in value from $600 to $1,500. The report of its Secretary at the last meeting of the Association contains the following :

"Rate of premiums to date, about 26-1/2 per cent."

The good effect of this institution was felt from the start, and a feeling of confidence in the value of real estate which did not exist prior to the establishment of the Building and Loan Association amongst the residents of Tucson is now prevalent.

The following are the officers: Geo. Roskruge, President; Fred Fleishman, Vice-President; Thos. Hughes, Treasurer; W. W. Gillette, Secretary. Directors - Thos. Wilson, A. V. Grossetta, Chas. Hoff, John Martin, Sam Drachman, Chas. Shibell, A. Goldschmidt, Wm. Reid.


THE main Public School building of the city, as shown in the above cut, is a large, commodious and handsome brick structure, erected in 1882 at a cost of $45,000. Its furnishings and appointments are all first class and up with the times, including a library and fair laboratory and apparatus for the illustration of physics and chemistry. This main building accommodates about 400 pupils and is well filled. In addition to ifs eight regular grades or departments, each in charge of its appropriate teacher, it has a High School department in charge of the principal, W. C. Bowman, in which a two years' course of instruction is given in the more advanced studies of mathematics, the natural sciences and languages, preparing pupils for College or the University. There are also four primary ward schools in different parts of the city which are well attended. All needed supplies, except books and slates, are furnished at the public expense. The schools are maintained ten months in the year, and teachers are paid from $70 to $125 per month.

The Business Men of Tucson.
Selim M. Franklin.

Was born in San Bernardino, California, October 19, 1859. After having gone through the public schools of that city, he engaged in the business of newspaper publisher and short-hand reporter, and continued in this business for two years, when he left it in order to attend college. In 1878 he entered the University of California, where he was noted for his close application and studious habits, and in 1882 he was graduated with honors from that institution as a Bachelor of Arts. He at once devoted himself to the study of the law, and in the same year was admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court of the State of California. He practiced law in San Bernardino for a short time, and May, 1883, left for Tucson, Arizona, where he has since resided and practiced his profession. In 1884 he was elected a member of the 13th Legislative Assembly of Arizona on the regular Democratic ticket, and it is a notorious fact, that in the midst of all the abuses and accusations of corruption that have been heaped on that body, the actions of the Hon. S. M. Franklin stand without reproach from anybody. He afterwards became attorney for the city of Tucson, and in 1885 formed a law partnership with the Hon. Harry R. Jeffords, under the firm name of Jeffords & Franklin, and has ever since been a member of that firm. He was Deputy District Attorney of Pima County in 1887-8, and is at present a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Arizona, and also a member of the Territorial Capital Commission. The straightforward and incorruptible course which he has ever followed in his public actions, and his undoubted ability, have gained for him well merited prominence, both as a lawyer and as a worthy citizen.

St. Mary's Hospital.

The watchful, tender care of woman at the bedside of the sick and wounded is more to the patient than all the gold and silver that could be brought to him. No one can care for the sick like a woman. None seem to sympathize and feel so much for those in distress. The good Sisters of St. Joseph have this Hospital in charge. It belongs to their order. This institution was founded about ten years ago, according to the directions of the Most Rev. I. B. Salpoint, who is now Archbishop of Santa Fe, New Mexico. One notable feature in the Hospital is that it was constructed from stone out of the mountains near by. Its location is about one and a half miles from the city of Tucson, and is on the west slope of the beautiful Santa Cruz Valley. Its proximity to the mountains insure a healthy atmosphere, and patients who seek this resort in illness obtain great relief in the balmy air thereto be found. Three of the leading physicians of Tucson have charge of the various departments.

The building is two stories high, and about 200 feet long by 50 feet wide, and has department houses attached. Great pains were taken, in building it, to have all the improvements that would insure to the sick that comfort and ease which they so much require. The Mother Superior has shown great tact in employing assistant nurses and attendants.

The water at this institution is of the best, and everything that can be had in the market, is procured for the tables. The grounds are laid out with a symmetry that can only be effected by artistic taste and skillful work. Beautiful shade trees abound in the valley. Below the main hospital, there are large buildings which are used as a school for orphans. This also is managed by the Sisters, and, as they have competent teachers among them, the little ones who are intrusted to their care, are sure of receiving the best attention and instruction. There are some of the best gardens and orchards in the country around the hospital, and vegetables of all kinds are raised. A large farm is also attached to the institution. A carriage runs daily, twice each way, between the city and the hospital. One of the clergy from the Cathedral attends to divine services, both at the hospital and at the Home. The charges at this hospital are moderate, and all information desired, will be cheerfully given upon application by letter.

M. S. Snyder.

The thriving little town of Springwater, in Livingston County, New York was the place of nativity of M. S. Snyder, our gentlemanly assessor and collector. He was born April 25, 1853. Attended first the North Dansville Seminary, and afterwards the Genessee Wesleyan Seminary in New York State. Ho was for two years bookkeeper for a firm in Rochester, New York. In 1874, he was appointed deputy collector of customs in St. Louis, Missouri. Mr. Snyder was one of the first United States store-keepers appointed in St. Louis after the completion of the "Whisky Ring" trial. In 1876 he was appointed deputy collector of Internal Revenue in the same city, and served in this capacity until 1878, when he came to Arizona, arriving at Tucson, August 8th of the same year, and remaining in Arizona since that time. He was connected with the Arivaca Milling and Mining Co. for about one year, and was afterwards in the Recorder's Office for a short time. Later he became managing agent for the Arivaca Mail and Stage Co., which position he retained for one year. He was a member of the 11th Legislature of Arizona. For two years he was Deputy Sheriff and Assessor, of Pima County, under R. H. Paul, after which time he engaged in and mining. In 1886 he was elected County Clerk of Pima County, and when that office was abolished, in March, 1887, he was appointed Clerk of the Board of Supervisors, which position he retained until January 1,1889. In the election of 1888, he was Republican candidate for Assessor and Tax Collector, and was elected to the place. This position he at present occupies, and he does it well.

Washington M. Jacobs, Mining Bureau, Assay Office and Real Estate.

No one enterprise will be of more interest to the public of Arizona generally than the one heading this article. The number and value of the mines here require competent assayers, and men who have the confidence of the public. This business was started by W. M. Jacobs about the year 1870, and he is widely known throughout Arizona as a reliable assayer, and occupies a prominent position as a mining expert. His scales and other apparatus are models of excellent workmanship and perfect accuracy. In short, he has on hand the best that art and science can produce.

Mr. Jacobs was born in Charleston, S. C, and has resided here for the past ten years.

In addition to his assay business, he deals in real estate and mining property and is a very popular man in this locality, having held the office of Justice of the Peace for several terms.

All ore sent in from abroad for assaying will receive immediate attention, and accurate assays will be promptly rendered.

G. Allison & Sons, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Groceries, Green, Dried and Canned California Fruits.

Among the prominent business men in Tucson no one is more successful than Messrs. G. Allison & Sons, '^^ who are considered as among Tucson's most active and energetic business men. Their place of business is located at the corner of Congress and Church streets, in the main business portion of the city. The business was established in 1881 by the present firm. They carry a very large stock of goods and do a general commission business, buying and selling in car-load lots. Their trade extends over the northern portion of Sonora, Mexico, and Southern Arizona.

The individual members of the firm are Mr. F. Allison, Mr. G. Allison and Mr. W. Allison. All three are agreeable gentlemen and from their long residence in the Southwest are enabled to suit the requirements of their customers. Ever courteous, obliging and attentive to business, they have well earned the success which has crowned their efforts, and they rank, as a firm, as one of the foremost in the mercantile circles of Tucson.

Pierce Ford, Hardware.

Considered as a whole, the hardware trade of any business community forms a very important item in the sum total of her industries, especially is this the case in a new country, and where farming and mining interests predominate, the importance of the business can hardly be over-estimated.

The business of Mr. Pierce Ford was established in 1883 by the present proprietor and has been a decided and continuous success from the start, though its progress has been so marked as to be almost phenomenal within the past two years.

Mr. Ford manufactures tinware of all kinds, and deals in all kinds of stoves and lamps, both fancy and plain, crockery, glassware, stamped ware, cutlery, etc. Besides, this house is the sole agent for the Charter Oak stoves and ranges. They have one advantage over others in the fact that they are located at No. 21 Congress street in the most central part of the city.

Their trade from the adjoining mining camps and from the northern district of Sonora, Mexico, far exceeds that of any other like business in the Territory. Their buildings front on Congress street and extend 117 feet back.

Mr. Ford is a wide awake business man and came here at a time when men of energy and tact were the only ones who could stay. For many years he has worked hard both for the public and his own good , so that, now, he stands as one of the leading merchants of the Territory.

Chas. R. Drake, General Insurance Agent.

In every community, business or profession, are to be found men, men who stand head and shoulders above their fellows in ability, perseverance and uprightness, and these are the men who, to, use a common phrase, invariably reach "the top of the tree." Such a man, it is admitted on all hands, is Mr. Chas. R. Drake, whose agency ranks high in this line of business. Mr. Drake has resided in Arizona since 1871. He came here and settled down to help build up the great Southwest. He was assistant postmaster at Tucson from 1876 to 1880. He was twice elected County Recorder of Pima County, from 1881 to 1884, twice a member of the City Council, and has held many positions of trust, both of a public and private character. He was elected to the Territorial Council (Senate) for two terms from Pima County, and was elected the President of that body during the last (15th) Legislature. To-day he is the Receiver of Public Moneys at the U. S. Land Office, Tucson.

Mr. Drake is the resident agent in this city for the Safety Nitro Powder Co. of California. He has also charge of all sub-agencies throughout Arizona, New Mexico and the State of Sonora, Mexico. He has on hand, at all times, a general supply both of powder, caps and fuse. And he has, by his fair-minded views and integrity, won the confidence of his fellow citizens. Hence he has been able to push the trade of his Company into every mining camp throughout his large territory.

Mr. Drake also does a general insurance business at No. 8 Congress street and represents the following well-known insurance companies: The Mutual Life Insurance Co. of New York, The Imperial Fire Insurance Co. of London, The National Insurance Co. of Ireland, The ^Etna of Hartford, Connecticut, The Atlas of London, The Niagara of New York, The Phoenix of Brooklyn, The American Fire Insurance Co. of Philadelphia, Pa., and The Sun Fire Office of London.

The large business which he has necessitates his having a General Manager and Traveling Agent in the person of Mr. John H. Finch, who is an enterprising man, and ably assists Mr. Drake in the management of this agency.

This firm is but another example of what strict application to business can accomplish.

Fred. Fleishman & Co., Druggists.

One bright example of marked and well merited success in an important line of business is furnished by the above firm, its name being synonymous throughout the Territory for reliability, thorough acquaintance with the business and every quality calculated to commend it to public favor. It is therefore no wonder that the firm has become established on the firmest kind of commercial footing, and that it has earned and maintained a foremost place, not only in its own particular line of business, but among the commercial enterprises of the city generally.

The establishment of F. Fleishman and Company was founded in the year 1880 by Mr. Fred Fleishman with an ample capital, and the house has maintained a position in the front rank from the beginning of its career. To-day they carry a stock of over $15,000, consisting of the best lines of goods to be found in southern Arizona. Their store is located at the junction of Congress and Meyer streets, in the most central part of the city. A full line of Fancy Toilet articles is always kept on hand. Their prescription department is one of the best to be found on this coast, as none but the most experienced clerks are employed. Mr. Fred Fleishman is a man of sterling business qualities, and is alive to all the wants of the public in his line. Parties living out of town may, with safety, send orders by mail to this firm, and they will receive prompt attention from that obliging gentleman.

Arctlc Ice Co.

From the earliest times ice and snow have been esteemed as luxuries for cooling water, liquors, and receptacles for preserving meats and other viands for future use in the warm climates of Oriental and Southern countries. The production of ice by nature in regions distant from those which require in the summer months has been, until the invention of ice manufacturing machinery, a source of wealth to many of the inhabitants of those countries. In modern times, however, from having been regarded only as a luxury, ice has come into such general use that it has become almost one of the necessaries of civilized life. Its chief value, perhaps, consists in its antiseptic or preserving properties. In the fevers of hot climates, ice is frequently the only means of saving life; hence, methods of producing it artificially have been practiced in India for centuries. Radiation from the earth under a clear sky, is a very active cause of cold, and the Hindoos, near Calcutta, by a skillful combination of evaporation and radiation, have produced ice artificially for ages. About 1850 devices for producing ice by evaporation or absorption came into notice. Hence liquids that are most readily volatilized are used in all the appliances for manufacturing ice - ammonia most frequently.

General Royal A. Johnson began the manufacture of ice in Tucson some four years ago. His equipment was of the average size, using a 30-horse power Arctic machine, of a capacity of seven tons daily. The factory is at present the largest in Arizona. The building is a massive edifice, the works and office extending over the entire block. This factory uses nothing but distilled water in the process of manufacture, and their ice, consequently, is remarkable for its purity, density, and freedom from air bubbles, and extraneous ingredients.

Gen. Johnson is a man of more than ordinary business intelligence and has done much to promote the happiness and comfort of his fellow citizens. In starting and maintaining this enterprise, he has done much toward making Tucson a desirable place in which to reside.

Eagle Milling Co.

Improved facilities are the true indices of progress, and the most intelligent manifestation of the onward march of civilization. Evidences of enterprise by a community, in projecting modern improvements and carrying them out to accomplishment, are the best criterions by which to estimate the enterprise of its citizens and their appreciation of the modern ideas of progress, and the clearest proofs that they are not mere fossils of the past, clogs on the wheels of progress but keenly alive to all enterprises that promise to inure to the public welfare and their city's reputation.

The Eagle Milling Co.'s flouring mill of Tucson is one of the pioneer institutions of the Territory. Like many of the early enterprises of Arizona, it had its origin in a modest way, from which, by gradual but continuous additions, has developed into one of the leading, if not the very foremost, of our milling plants, and one of which Pima County should be proud.

The mills and main warehouses of this establishment, are located on Main street, between McCormick and Simpson streets, in the City of Tucson. They occupy a frontage, on Main street, of two hundred and ninety-five feet. The mill was built by James Lee and Wm. F. Scott two pioneers of this Territory in 1872. The capacity of the mill then was 30 barrels per day, but, under the present management the output has increased to over one hundred barrels per day.

The Company are the sole manufacturers of the Patent, Extra Family and Superfine Brands of flour shown by our cuts on this page. They have a large trade with Sonora, Mexico, and all of Southern Arizona. Their business has increased to such dimensions that four storehouses are necessary at the mills, and one large warehouse has been erected at the Southern Pacific Railroad depot.

The gentlemen comprising this firm are all well-known business men. Mr. A. Goldschmidt is President, George Shand, Vice-President, and Leo Goldschmidt, Treasurer and General Manager. Mr. Goldschmidt's public spirit has been manifested in every possible way, and he is always among the foremost to promote any enterprise looking to the public welfare and the advancement of the city. As a business man, his successful career and untarnished reputation are too widely known and recognized to require comment. His works, enterprise and general usefulness speak for him in terms sufficiently strong and convincing, and entitle him to the fullest esteem and consideration of this community.

A. Goldschmidt & Co., Wholesale and Retail Grocers.

Foremost among the establishments which have led the march of progress and prosperity in Tucson, . is the mammoth wholesale and retail grocery house of A. Goldschmidt & Co. The people of Tucson are justly proud of such houses, which have flourished and grown up within her limits, from comparatively insignificant beginnings, to such proportions, whose successes have been concomitants of the city's development, and whose members have exhibited such intelligence and progressiveness as to make their establishments such as would do credit to much larger cities.

This firm was established in the year 1882, and has enjoyed its share of the public patronage ever since. They do a business of over $200,000 a year, and do a large wholesale trade with the more northerly States of Mexico. Recently they have been compelled to enlarge their stores, which are now located on Congress street, near Main, Their new department consists of a large store, 45x60 feet. They also have two large warehouses, located at the Southern Pacific depot, where they receive goods by carload lots. Few men would have had sufficient perseverance to engage in business at the time when these enterprising gentlemen began. Success has, however crowned their efforts, and to-day, their establishment occupies a high position as one of the leading industrial institutions of the Southwest. This firm, undoubtedly, has a future before it that will give it rank as one unexcelled by any other concern in Arizona and one which the most exacting and fastidious could look upon only with pride.

Arizona National Bank of Tucson.

From 1840 to 1864 all banking institutions in this country w^ere chartered by States. The development of the resources, increase in their natural products and the demand of our commercial and manufacturing interests, bringing about a system of exchange, showed the State system to be crude and slow, and necessitated an improvement in facilities and a uniformity in the banking operations of the country. To this end the National Banking System was enacted in 1864 and in the opinion of financiers of great experience and marked ability, it is a decided improvement on the old system of this country and of Europe. The National Banks invest one-fourth of their capital in the bonds of the National Government, and by a deposit of these in the United States Treasury are authorized to issue notes for circulation.

The demand for more extended banking facilities is but another evidence of the fact that the commercial prosperity of Tucson is greater than ever before in the history of the city. To meet this demand, a new bank has been organized under the name of "The Arizona National Bank of Tucson," with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, and the following well-known business men as its oflicers: B. M. Jacobs, President; Samuel Hughes, Vice-President; and M. P. Freeman, Cashier. B. M. Jacobs, S. M. Franklin, Samuel Hughes, L. M. Jacobs, and Geo. Pusch, Directors. The policy of this bank will be conducted on liberal lines, but always within those lines which mark the boundary of safety for the bank and its patrons. It will be enterprising always, but never reckless. It will, thus, wield a great influence on the finances of this section, an influence of a healthy, beneficial and generous character, - so far as consistent, of course, with wise and prudent management.

The officers of this banking institution are too widely known throughout the Territory to need any special introduction to the public. Their personnel and reputations are sufficient guarantee to the public of the success of the new institution.

F. J. Villaescusa, Saddles, Harness, Etc.

The importance of the harness trade, and the articles connected therewith, cannot be overestimated especially in Arizona, so closely is it identified with all the industries carried on there. It becomes virtually a necessity, without which those industries would not be carried on - at least with any appreciable measure of success.

An excellent example of a prosperous and successful business of this sort, carried on with a just appreciation of what is suited to the country, is that conducted by Mr. F. J. Villaescusa, whose establishment is located at 251 Meyer street. As a manufacturer of fine harness, this gentleman has attained an enviable reputation, by reason of the uniform reliability, elegant finish, and substantial nature of the various articles turned out by him. He has always on hand a full and complete stock of harness saddles, bridles, spurs, bits, road carts and shoemakers supplies, etc. As a manufacturer of saddles, bridles, harness, etc., and dealer in saddlery leather, Mr. Villaescusa enjoys a flourishing and extensive trade. He has resided in Tucson for the past 12 years, and has been engaged in his present business since 1881. He "is one of the finest workmen in the Territory, and has attained an honorable position among the business men of this community. He has, in course of erection, a large brick front store, on the corner of Jackson and Meyer streets, which he will occupy when finished. The manner in which his business is conducted, is an indisputable evidence of the skill and enterprise of its proprietor, and his removal to larger quarters is a standing guarantee of increasing usefulness and prosperity.

Cosmopolitan Hotel, Samuel Katzenstein, Proprietor.

Ideas and customs which satisfied the tastes and requirements of a century ago would appear incongruous in these days of progress and enlightenment. Vast changes have taken place, and phenomenal improvements have been made. The heroic colonist of 1785, were he to be suddenly resurrected and placed in one of our metropolitan centres, would be as much dazed as was Rip Van Winkle, when awakening from his sleep in the Catskills.

In no one feature is this change more pronounced than in the Hotel system of to-day. A quarter of a century even, has wrought wondrous changes for the better. There is as much similarity between an Arizona hotel of 1850 and one of 1890, as between an adobe hacienda and a palatial residence. Tucson, which, in all important features keeps pace with modern progress, is more than ordinarily well equipped Arizona hotels, ani among them not one holds a higher rank than the Cosmopolitan. In some features it is the very first. Founded in 1870, it has always occupied a high position in the consideration of the traveling public, equal to any similar establishment in the Southwest, reflecting credit not only upon the management but upon the reputation of the city as well. In 1887, Mr. Samuel Katzenstein assumed the proprietorship and he has, by introducing all modern improvements, methods and conveniences, brought it up to its present excellence. The Dining-room of this House is 50x20 and affords ample accommodation for 100 people. The house itself is 150x150 and two stories high, and contains 40 large and airy rooms, with 15 foot ceiling, and can accommodate over 100 people. The parlors are lighted by gas, and water is laid on every floor.

Mr. Katzenstein was born in Baltimore, Md., and has resided in Arizona for 14 years. He is an experienced hotel man, having kept large hotels in Denver, Col., and in other places. He takes great pleasure and pride in providing everything for the comfort of his guests.

The Cosmopolitan is officered, from host down, by considerate, genial gentlemen, who never neglect the comfort of guests, but are always promoting their ease and enjoyment, solicitous, not only for the reputation of the house, but of the city.

Arizona Saily and Weekly “Citizen.”

A history of Arizona, without at least a passing notice of one of its most potential factors, the Daily and Weekly Citizen, would be like presenting the play of Hamlet with Hamlet left out. The Citizen is in its twenty-second year of existence, and is the oldest publication in the Territory. In its more than two decades of life it has recorded the changes, the ebb and How, the ills that beset, the prosperity, the political, financial and social advancement of the Territory as in a looking glass. The files of the Citizen are a faithful record of twenty-two years of a checkered Territorial existence. The Citizen has watched the growth of Arizona, step by step, even under the ban and the shadow of the Apache's knife. It has recorded the passing events from the cradle of the Territory. Her mineral resources have been made known, her agricultural wealth developed, her hillsides have been dotted with countless herds and flocks, towns have sprung up in waste places, cities have grown as if by the magic of Aladdin, the hum and bustle and activity of life are heard in place of the lonely cry of the vaquero; and, literally, "the desert has been made to blossom as the rose" since the day the Citizen was born.

In all these years the Citizen has followed the one consistent course of legitimate journalism. It has labored in the public vineyard for the common good and has found reward, if not in great riches, in the confidence and respect of the entire community. It has worked at all times with an eye single to the Territory's interests and has lost no opportunity to champion her cause at home and abroad.

Politically the Citizen is Republican. It was born in a Republican cradle and swaddled in Republican clothes. Granting to honest men of opposite opinions the same honesty of faith which it claims for itself it has consistently fought the good fight on many a battlefield and has kept the faith.

The motto of the Citizen is "In business, newsy; in politics, Republican." Its establishment at Tucson is the most complete in all points of equipment in the Territory. The job department and the book bindery turn out work not excelled this side of St. Louis. Its telegraphic service is furnished by the Associated Press - the largest, most complete and most powerful news-gathering agency in the world. In view of these facts, and the fair and equitable treatment which the Citizen has at all times accorded all sections, the business of the office is constantly on the increase, and the paper ranks, to-day, not only the first paper of the Territory but of the entire southwestern section. The Citizen is managed by Herbert Brown and edited by W. L. Vail.

Tucson Gas Co.

While all improvements, doubtless, reflect credit on the community in which they are introduced, how much individual credit is due to those who first established such improvements in that community. It was not till 1882, that this important improvement of introducing gas into Tucson, was put in successful operation. The plant occupies two blocks at the foot of Meyer street. The capacity of their machinery is 50,000 cubic feet per day. Their actual production is not quite so much. They have about three miles of mains, running through the principal streets of the city. Fifty public lights, on the streets, are sufficient to illuminate the entire business and residence portions.

The officers are, W. F. Overton, President and Treasurer; and H. E. Lacy, Secretary; both these gentlemen are too well known in this Territory to need any formal introduction. They are public spirited, and enterprising citizens, willing to lend a helping hand to any enterprise for the city's good.

Frank Miltenberg, City Bakery, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Staple and Fancy Candies.

The manufacture of candy, in its modern development, bears the distinctive marks of French ingenuity and invention. In no other country does the preparation of sugar, as a luxury, offer a livelihood to so many persons, and afford a field for so much ingenuity and artistic execution.

In Tucson, the trade in confectionery is carried on extensively, and, in the past few years, important advances have been made by the establishment of a concern which deals solely in the finer grades of confectionery, only manufacturing stock from the purest and most wholesome ingredients. This is the flourishing concern of Mr. Frank Miltenberg. He has been in Arizona for the last 12 years. Born in Germany, he came to this country to grow up with it. He started in business here in 1880, on a small scale, and, by prudence and enterprise, has built up his business to such magnitude that now it stands second to none in the city. He carries a stock of over $3,000. His store is at 209 Meyer street, and is 75x30 feet. His bakery is at 418 Convent street, and is 190x100 feet. Here he also carries a large stock. He is a prominent member of the City Council, and being a young man (only 35) and thus far advanced in successful business, it may be safely predicted that he will continue his successful career as he has begun it, and take a foremost place, not only in Tucson, but in the Territory.

Orndorf House.

People who travel about with their families in search of a pleasant climate and comfortable quarters, often desire, when coming into a city, to find a hotel where they can secure quiet accommodations and that freedom which they cannot find at the hotels which the general public frequent. Those who seek for that kind of accommodation in Tucson need go no farther than to that pleasant hostelry which is presided over by Mrs. A. C. Orndorf. This house is located on Church street, opposite the Tucson Star office, in the most pleasant and quietest part of the city, and conveniently close to all business, as well as to the Courthouse and Land Office. The accommodation consists of rooms for about sixty guests, with large sample room for commercial men. Water, gas and all modern improvements are furnished throughout and the attendance is first class. Families receive special attention.

The house was opened in 1889, and the fact that it has been in full blast ever since is sufficient guarantee that the management is giving every satisfaction.

Mrs. Orndorf is a lady of experience and much business ability, and is pleasant and obliging to a degree; so that all who come to Tucson and desire a neat, clean, homelike hotel will do well to call upon this very agreeable hostess. A free 'bus meets all trains and the traveling public cannot do better than patronize this house.

Giant Powder Co.

Dynamite, or giant powder, is one and the same substance, the former being the European, and the latter the American name applied to it.

The Giant Powder Company, who acquired their patents from Alfred Noble, the European inventor, introduced Dynamite into the United States under the designation of Giant Powder, hence the name by which it is here more generally known. This company having so obtained their patents from the inventor, and being the exclusive holders of the same, all nitro-glycerine compounds, other than those made by them, must necessarily be mere imitations of the original. Being the first to introduce these compounds into this country, now twenty years ago, and having been engaged in their manufacture ever since, the Giant Powder Company, through their long experience in the business having rendered them familiar with the qualities of the article and the wants of the consumers, and through a constant intercourse kept up with the European manufacturers of dynamite, and with the original inventor, have been able to bring this powder to the highest possible state of perfection. The possession of such superior advantages insures to the products of this Company all the properties most desirable in a high explosive, as is amply attested by their extensive use, and steadily growing popularity. They are everywhere recognized as the standard, this company having received the first premium for the excellence of their powder wherever they have competed for the same.

The value of a nitro-glycerine powder, is regulated by the amount of nitro-glycerine it contains, and by a skillful manipulation of the materials that absorb the oil. Their powder never being deficient in this essential ingredient, and the company having been careful to comply with this other requirement, stand to-day, as they alwa^'s have stood, unrivalled in the market.

Their agent in the City of Tucson is Mr. Thomas Wilson, who also handles the Judson Powder Company's powders, caps, and fuse, and the Judson Powder for blasting and mining purposes. He has always on hand a large stock of the powders, etc., of both companies. The office of this Agency is with the Tucson Lumber Company, on Fifth Avenue, between Tenth and Eleventh streets.

Hon. J. A. Zabriskie.

Was a native of New Jersey, but afterwards became a resident of New York state. He received a collegiate education in Columbia College of New York City, which was subsequently followed by a military course at the academy at West Point. He was in the war of the rebellion, and did good service in it, which merited for him the appointment of Assistant Adjutant-General for the Western Districts. After the close of the war he went to Texas, where he became prominent in the politics of that state. He was three times elected District Attorney for the Western District, and was one of the Republican commission from Texas to Washington, in 1869, to urge President Grant to recognize the Hamilton Republicans of that state. He was appointed by President Arthur to the office of United States Attorney for Arizona, a position which he filled with honor, efficiency, and to the approval of both the people and the government. He now has a well, earned reputation among his associates in all courts of law, as well as a high standing in the community in which he lives. Col. Zabriskie is attorney for a number of large corporations, and in political life has taken an active and trusted position, having been several times Chairman of the Republican Central Committee of Pima County. He was for five consecutive terms Grand Orator of the Masonic fraternity, and has delivered numerous addresses on questions of vital importance to the public. The Colonel has taken active part in all the political campaigns of the past ten years, and his reputation as a stump speaker is well known all over the coast. As a lecturer and ready orator he stands among the first.

The Consolidated National Bank of Tucson.

Banking may be regarded as the practical application of the principles of the science of Political Economy, which furnishes, when needed, the sinews of trade, and indirectly prevents prodigality. A combined system of banking, which includes the ordinary style of receiving, loaning, or discounting money, with the modern savings system, seems to more fully meet or carry out the principles of Political Economy than any other system. For character and solvency the financial institutions of Tucson will compare favorably with similar institutions in any city in the country; and their prosperity may be safely taken as an unerring index to the general condition of our affairs. Viewed from this standpoint, the city is, at the present time, in a very solvent condition and its future has never appeared more assured.

The Consolidated National Bank began operations under its present name on April 16, 1890, succeeding the Consolidated Bank of Tucson, which was started in 1883. It has a capital stock of 150,000. The following well-known gentlemen are its officers: David Henderson, President; H. B. Tenny, Cashier; H. E. Lacy, Vice-President; E. W. Graves, Ass't-Cashier. Directors: Daniel Meyer, San Francisco, Cal.; Frank Allison, of G. Allison it Son, Wholesale Grocers, Tucson; H. E. Lacy, chairman board of County Supervisors, and manager Tucson Gas Company.

The following is the statement of the condition of the Bank to October 2, 1890:


Loans and Discounts $ 43,591 16
Bank Building 8,000 00
United States Bonds 13,018 75
Expenses Paid 2,724 94

Cash Resources:

Territorial, County and City Warrants $63,692 06
Due from other Banks 21,799 64
Due from U. S. Treasurer 562 50
Cash on Hand 32,840 85 118,895 05
$186,229 90


Capital Stock Paid in $' 50,000 00
Undivided Profits 8,359 84
Circulation 11,250 00
Deposits : 121,620 06

$186,229 90

The Bank owns the block in which it is situated, and it is one of the largest and best business blocks in the city.

Such being the status of the Consolidated National Bank of Tucson, it must be quite apparent that no similar institution in the city is exerting a more potent influence for good, or is aiding more effectually the advancement of the general welfare of the city. Under the direction of its able management, composed as it is, of gentlemen yet in the heyday of their usefulness, it is, doubtless, destined to a prolonged and honorable career of prosperity.

J. Goldbaum, Club Liquor and Cigar House

The consumption of spirituous liquors both as a beverage, medicinally and in the mechanical arts, is so vast and widespread that the traffic necessarily involves an immense amount of capital, and cuts quite a figure in the markets of the world.

One house in the city of Tucson engaged in this business is a monument and proof of the progress made by the enterprising proprietor. This concern is known as "The Club Liquor & Cigar House." Mr. Julius Goldbaum, who is the sole proprietor, has retired in this country for over fourteen years and has therefore learned exactly what the people require in his line. He has on hand constantly all of the choicest brands of Wines, Liquors, Cigars and Smoking Tobacco to be found in the known world. He also carries the finest line of Meerschaum goods and Cutlery to be found in the city. Mr. Goldbaum is the sole importer in this city of the genuine Baccanorra Mescal, which has a widespread reputation throughout this coast.

He started his business in 1886, and by careful attention to his patrons and close application to his business, it has increased until now it ranks as the first of its particular kind in the city. Mr. Goldbaum is also very much interested in public affairs and, having a genial, courteous and affable manner, his friends are legion.

Manning & Oury, Commission Brokers, Etc.

The importance of the Commission Agent, in the transaction of business, is thoroughly understood by every intelligent, wide-awake man in the Nineteenth Century. No other medium is so capable of establishing the most intimate relations between the seller and buyer - no matter how utter strangers the parties may be to each other, or how widely separated by distance, and no other medium labors so assiduously to promote their respective interests by conferring upon both parties alike, special advantages, otherwise unattainable. He is the mutual friend and advisor, or go-between, that may be relied upon implicitly, and in no branch of business have his services been sought to a greater extent, and with more gratifying results, than in matters pertaining to real estate. The firm of Manning & Oury, of Tucson, is one of many engaged in this occupation, who can be recommended to the public at large as eminently qualified, and thoroughly reliable. The offices of this enterprising firm are located at No. 10 Congress street, near the Consolidated National Bank, of Tucson. The individual members of the firm are L. H. Manning and F. W. Oury. They have large and commodious offices, and employ none but the most competent clerks. Their experience, comprehensive knowledge of the real estate and land business, in every detail, and their extensive facilities for safely conducting it, in all its various branches, together with their wide acquaintance with capitalists and large land operators, give them decided advantages over the majority of land agents, and enable them to give a guarantee of the most perfect satisfaction in the transacting of all business entrusted to their charge.

They buy, sell, exchange, lease and rent farms, ranches, and improved, or unimproved, lands of all descriptions. They make a specialty of looking after the interests of non-resident property-owners, with the same watchful care which they exercise over their own property. In the city department, they give special attention to the exchange of real estate, renting and collecting rents, keeping property in repair, insuring, paying of taxes, etc., and make good bargains for their customers in all kinds of agricultural lands. Enterprising and skillful operators, keeping abreast with the progressive age, in stock-raising, mining and investment of capital, the firm of Manning & Oury commends itself to the public, as one from whom the most liberal treatment may be expected.

L. Zeckendorf & Co.

Shakespeare, when speaking of mercantile probity, does so in terms of high approval, as, for example, in the case of Antonio in " The Merchant of Venice." It is, in fact, from the character of the honorable, upright, liberal and generous characters, such as was that of Bassanio's friend, that we have derived the term "Merchant Prince," an appellation not always aptly applied in modern times, as it is often bestowed on men distinguished only for powers of mere money-getting Something more and something higher than this faculty is necessary to constitute your real merchant prince. There must be no suspicion of meanness, but, on the contrary, a generous and unselfish, even self-sacrificing, regard for the well-being of the community in the character to render it perfect. Without flattery, there is to be found in Tucson a gentleman who possesses, in an eminent degree, the qualifications mentioned. The reference is to Mr. Albert Steinfeld, of the firm of L. Zeckendorf & Co., who has been the resident partner in Tucson for the last twenty years.

The firm consists of two members, Mr. Louis Zeckendorf, who resides in the city of New York and conducts the business there, and Mr. Albert Steinfeld, of Tucson, who has the entire business here under his supervision. Their establishment in Tucson is located on the corners of Pennington and Main streets, and comprise two large stores, one 85x188 feet, one-story and basement, where they store their general merchandise, and the other, 65x150 feet, wherein is kept their large stock of furniture, carpets and wall paper. Besides these two very extensive structures, the firm possesses an immense warehouse which is equally as large as the main store. This building is situated between the depot and the shops of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, the freight being delivered from the train directly into the warehouse. An idea of the magnitude of the business carried on can be gathered from the fact that two hundred and seventy-five carloads of merchandise were delivered and unloaded during 1889, averaging over one carload per day.

In addition to their other business, the firm buys and sells hides of all kinds, and transacts a general banking business. They also handle beers from the most celebrated breweries in the world, principally that of the celebrated Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association, and those from the equally celebrated brewing establishment of Philip Best and Val Blatz of Milwaukee. L. Zeckendorf & Co. are the sole agents for those beers for Arizona.

The firm also sold, last year, one million Vanity Fair cigarettes, three hundred thousand Duke's Cameo cigarettes, and one hundred thousand of the Lone Jack brand. Flour is also handled by them in a very large way, two million pounds having been disposed of by them during the year 1889. They disposed of fifty carloads of sugar during the same year. During the same period the ham, bacon and lard sold by this firm amounted to forty carloads. Cigars, of which they keep all the leading brands, are sold strictly at wholesale. Since a year they have been the sole agents for Arizona of the Manitau Mineral Waters, and get that commodity also by the carload.

The drug department is very complete, the firm being the sole agents for the Territory of the J. C. Ayers Company, whose medicines are known all over the world.

L. Zeckendorf & Co. have not been neglectful of the needs of the Territory, and the large line of improved ranching machinery they carry, is another proof of how carefully they keep pace with the times. Barbed wire is another article of great importance to the rancher, and the firm receives it direct from the factories in the East, in solid carload lots. Another article which is received by this firm in the same way is wagons, both for the road and the ranch; also dog-carts and carriages. This is a growing branch of their business, and the yearly sales amount up to very respectable figures.

Every merchant throughout the Territory is acquainted with the large wholesale dry goods department, for it is the great depot from which all the dealers draw their supplies. The department carries a stock of staple dry goods, such as calicos, white goods, ginghams, denims, flannels, dress goods, hosiery, underwear, blankets, overalls, small wares, notions, etc. Here the house comes into direct competition with the largest jobbing houses of the East and the Pacific Coast, and from the fact that they buy all of their goods in New York, paying the very same prices as the other jobbing houses, be they located in Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City or San Francisco, they can not only successfully compete, but with their better knowledge of the wants of the local trade, can supply them with a better line of goods, at prices equal to those prevailing at any of the markets above mentioned.

It is a matter of pride to the firm, that, notwithstanding the increased competition, and the constant cutting down of prices and profits, this department has more than held its own, as shown by the greater amount of goods sold each succeeding season.

The dry goods and fancy goods retail department of L. Zeckendorf & Co. is the pride of the house, and the rich and varied assortment of goods displayed compare favorably with any of the stocks of the large retail houses East.

Here, again, the advantage of having a house established in New York is shown by the extremely moderate prices charged.

The fact that L. Zeckendorf & Co. are enabled to maintain so large a stock in their furniture department is an indication that the citizens of the Territory are not behind the times in their tastes in this direction. This department carries a complete assortment of household furniture, being in a position to furnish a house from the kitchen to the drawing room, besides furnishing the newest designs in wall papers, carpets, window shades and house decorations generally. A special branch of this department is in the taking of contracts for the fitting up of hotels and public buildings of all kinds in the most modern and improved style.

There are at present over one hundred people employed by this firm in and about their stores here, and, during some seasons, when spring goods are sold to the many mining camps in the vicinity, the number of those employed is greatly increased, as carload lots are then handled.

The firm was established in the year 1868 and is one of the pioneer houses as well as the largest mercantile firm in the Territory.

There is often more true ability, more of the qualities of true statesmanship and executive skill found in the leaders of commercial enterprise, in the practical solution of transportational problems and in the timely application of correct theories of trade, than can be found in the halls of Legislation. The true American Statesmen, of broad views and of successful measures, are the leading merchants, the architects, founders and heads of our leading commercial establishments. Such are the members of this firm, who, being yet in the prime of vigorous manhood, have made a rare record of business success, and gained a position second to none among the kings of commerce in their State and city, and who furnish an encouraging example to those who are but entering on the struggle of life. The history of the conmiercial activity of Arizona has produced but few examples of success, so marked and substantial, as is furnished by the firm of Messrs. L. Zeckendorf & Co., and among the enterprises representing the vigor and life of Arizona, this is one of the most distinctive and characteristic.

I. Frank & Co., Dry Goods, Clothing, Hats, Etc.

The immense dry goods establishment of I. Frank & Co. has been closely identified with the interests of the city of Tucson ever since it commenced business. Tucson possesses many business firms which would be a credit to much larger cities, but none of them have been conducted with more energy, perseverance and determination to meet the demands of the people, and to maintain the highest rank in commercial circles than has the one we have mentioned. The firm is one which has had a vast experience in the frontier trade. It is a corporation, having been incorporated in 1886. Mr. William Zeckendorf, of Tucson, is the general manager. A general dry goods business is conducted, both wholesale and retail, and the firm carries one of the best lines of boots and shoes to be found in the Southwest. Their trade is largely with the town of Sonora, Mexico, but they also carry on a general trade, of very large proportions, with all parts of the Territory. They, consequently, carry one of the largest stocks of any firm in the Southwest.

One of the guarantees to the public that they can procure at this business house exactly what they require is that Mr. William Zeckendorf is the general buyer and is well acquainted with the wants of the people of this part of the country. The fact that he is known to be an upright man is an assurance that he places before his many customers nothing but the best quality of goods to be found in the East, where he goes every year and personally superintends the buying of all goods to be sent to Tucson. As he also buys for cash, he is therefore enabled to give his patrons a much better price on goods than most of the firms of the city. This firm also carries all kinds of miners' outfits, and deal in all kinds of dry goods and articles generally needed by the people of this section. Mr. Zeckendorf was born in Germany and came to this Territory over twenty years ago, and engaged in business here. He has been an active member of the business community ever since. He is a public-spirited man and takes a lively interest in any public undertaking which he thinks will benefit the people of his city and the surrounding country. He has been a member of the Legislature, and now is an authority on all political issues. Although he is a Democrat, a Republican Administration has appointed him one of the Commissioners of the World's Fair to be held in 1893. Thus it is in politics as in business, he was found to be the right man, and he now occupies the right place as one of the leading merchants of the great Southwest. Besides his private mercantile business, Mr. Zeckendorf is largely interested in lands and canals of a public character in Graham and Pima counties, and in different mining plants, throughout the Territory. He is a man of sterling qualities, and if all the citizens of Arizona were as earnest for the good and welfare of the Territory, it would soon stand, as it deserves to stand, in the foremost places not only among the Territories, but among the States of the Union.

El Poloma Mining and Smelter Co. of Arizona.

Old Spanish history affords many illustrations of how fickle people were. Dame Fortune is even more fickle. The traditions of the old Jesuits having worked rich mines in the vicinity of Tucson, have led many a poor old prospector over the dry hills and mountains, in search of the lost diggings. Sometime since, Joseph Goldtree, of Tucson, had a claim in what is known as the Salero District. This he sold, not deeming it worth working. Lately, a New York Company, represented by Col. John Weir and W. W. Trask, bought this and other claims near by. These gentlemen started a new way to mine. They began where the prospectors left off. They profited by their experience. Putting on a force of men, they soon had the property in a fair way of development. A mill and concentration plant was erected at a distance from the mine of about nine miles, on the line of the Arizona & Sonora Railroad, in the Sonoita Valley, where the Railroad Company have built side tracks, fences, etc., and where a town is now started, called El Poloma. The offices of this Mining Company will be located at this point. The Company have just finished surveys, etc., for a tramway to be erected from the mine to the mill, and the parties to whom the contract is let, agree to transport ore from the mines to the mill at a cost of 60 cents per ton. Heretofore it has cost of $5.00 per ton to haul it over the wagon road. Thus the Company will be enabled to ship out all low grade ore at a rate which will pay them to concentrate it for shipment. They now are using the new jigging process for treating low grade ores, and they put about 3 tons of crude ore into one ton of concentrated, and are working all ore that otherwise would not pay to ship. The mill has a capacity of 50 tons per day. There are over 3,000 tons of ore on the dump at present, and about 20 men employed. It is the intention to increase this force to 50 hands, upon the return of Mr. Trask, who is on his way to New York and London. A large 800 horse-power engine is to be erected at the mine to hoist ore out of two 150 foot shafts, and, at the same time, run the tramway slide. This Company have 25 claims near each other, and all show a good grade of ore. The main mine has a showing 23 inches wide, at a depth of 150 feet, averaging 40 per cent of lead and 60 ounces of silver. The camp is well equipped. Large stores have been built at the mines, and are well stocked with such goods as are generally needed in a camp. A large train of 100 burros is engaged packing goods and supplies from the railroad station to the mines. Col. Weir will reside at El Poloma, and Mr. Trask in New York City. These gentlemen have not made public the extent of these mines, nor their richness, because they are not for sale. They intend to show the people what enterprise and grit can accomplish, with both high and low grade ores. Salero is about 60 miles south of the city of Tucson, and is at the south pass of the Santa Rita mountains, at an altitude of about the highest camp in Southern Arizona. With a mild climate, and good spring water, all are sure to have good health there. The camp is about 10 miles from the old city of Tubac, and the same distance from the famous Calabassas. Mr. Trask states that the output of the mines was three times as much as he dreamed of, and, with only the present force in the mill, they ship one carload per day of concentrates.

The mines are at an elevation of 1,600 feet above the mill, and at the base of the famous peak, "Old Baldy," whose brow is covered during three-fourths of the year with ice and snow, that shines out in the sunlight like so much silver.

J. S. Mansfeld, Pioneer Newsdealer of Arizona.
[Established 1870.]

It is needless to estimate the importance of the Book and Stationery trade, as that has long since been recognized, as it is positively indispensable to the development of a country, commercially, socially and intellectually; and the character of an establishment such as heads this article, decides, to a very large extent, the intellectual status of the community in which it exists. The city of Tucson has certainly cause for congratulation, that there is found in it. one of the finest Book and Stationery establishments in the Territory - the well known house of J. S. Mansfeld. Mr. Mansfeld, who is sole proprietor of the establishment, commenced business in 1870, and is therefore "the Pioneer," having himself sold the first newspaper in the Territory. He has built up a prosperous trade. In point of fact it is the largest of the kind in the Territory.

The premises occupied are extensive and commodious, consisting of a large brick store, 40x60 feet. The stock, which is varied and complete, consists of books of all kinds, elegant stationery, pictures, engravings, toys, fancy goods, cigars and cutlery, a full line of which is kept constantly on hand. He is one of the most careful purchasers, and, therefore, his stock is one which a library can confidently select from.

Mr. Mansfeld has been in business for the past twenty years, and is known throughout the Territory as one of the best business men in mercantile circles.

Large orders are filled from customers who reside in Mexico, but who cannot procure there the goods they desire. Mr. Mansfeld has served as one of the Board of Regents, has been Chairman of the Board of Supervisors and City Councilman. He was also for six years President of the Public Library and is now a School Trustee. Such men as he are bound to achieve fame and prosperity for they deserve it.

St. Joseph's Academy.

As the social and moral qualities of men and women are known by the company they keep, so the character and merits of a cit}' are readily gauged by the character of its schools. This Institution, directed by the Sisters of St. Joseph, is, in this respect, an honor and a credit to the city of Tucson. It offers to young ladies and children all the advantages of a thorough English and Spanish education. The Academy buildings are the most spacious and commodious of school buildings to be found in the Territory. They are fitted up with all the modern improvements conducive to the health, happiness and comfort of the pupils. The Sisters who conduct the establishment consider themselves in conscience bound to respond to the confidence which parents and guardians place in them by giving their pupils a Christian and virtuous education; cultivating their manners and giving them all the mental, moral and physical care that they could receive under the paternal roof.

Though the institution is a Catholic one, yet members from every denomination are received from all parts of the country. For the maintenance of order, all the pupils are required to observe the regulations adopted for their improvement.

The Course of Instruction embraces Christian Doctrine, Orthography, Reading, Writing, Grammar, Composition, Arithmetic, Book-keeping, Algebra and Geometry, Modern and Physical Geography, with use of the Globes, Astronomy, History and Biography, Rhetoric, Literature, Natural Philosophy and Botany, French and Spanish; Music on the Piano, Guitar and Violin, Drawing and Painting in Oil and Water colors Plain and Ornamental Needle work, and all kinds of Fancy work, Calisthenics, etc.

This Academy was started some twenty-two years ago and has maintained itself and its high reputation ever since.

Sister Superior James Stanislaus is in charge of the School, which now numbers over one hundred pupils. The Academic Year is divided into two Sessions of five months each. The first session commences on the first Monday in September and ends on the last day of January. The second session commences on the first day of February and ends the last week of June.

Besides occasional partial examinations during the year, general examinations take place towards the close of each session. That in June is followed by the distribution of premiums consisting of gold and silver medals, and a musical and dramatic performance.

Pupils are received at any time and charged from date of entrance. No deduction will be made for absence (except in case of protracted illness), nor when pupils are withdrawn before the expiration of a session.

References are required from strangers who desire to place their daughters or wards in the Institution.

Pupils should be supplied with sufficient clothing for the time they remain at the Institution. Terms per session (in advance):

Board and Tuition, including bed and bedding $ 100 00
Washing and mending 1.5 00
Piano and use of Instrument 25 00
Guitar and use of Instrument 25 00
French 15 00
Drawing and Painting 25 00
Violin 25 00

Needle and Fancy work are taught free of charge. All letters of inquiry are to be addressed to the Superioress, St. Joseph's Academy, from whom all additional information can be had on application.

“The Star.”

The Arizona Daily and Weekly Star, published in Tucson, Arizona, was established in 1877 by L. C. Hughes, its present editor and proprietor. The Star was the first democratic journal established in the Territory, and soon after its birth followed the permanent organization of the democratic party, which is firmly entrenched for all future time in Arizona; and The Star justly claims a large share of credit in directing and molding that public opinion which has given this result. The Star has always and continues to be a bold exponent of those principles which it believes tends to the advancement, prosperity, happiness and welfare of the people. From its first issue it declared that the true policy of the settlement of the vexed Indian problem would* find its solution in the removal of all turbulent Indians to some point far removed from their old hunting grounds. For five years The Star stood alone for this policy, and not until it was adopted and carried out by General Nelson A. Miles in the removal of the "Chiricahua Apaches" to Florida, was peace permanently established in Arizona. The Star has signalized itself by ever standing on the side of law, order and morality, and declares against vice in its every form, and boldly advocates the pulverization of the rum power. No journal exercises a greater influence for good in the Territory - and its large circulation and generous support accorded it, indicates that its bold outspoken^policy for the right, is in touch with the hearts of the people, and what more could the most ambitious journal hope or wish for ?

L. C. Hughes, the proprietor of The Star, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., May 15; 1842; was left an orphan at the tender age of two years; was kept on a farm for several years and thereafter learned the machinist trade in Pittsburg. At the breaking out of the war enlisted in Company A, 101st Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers; served two years of hard active service; was discharged on account of disability, and after partial recovery joined Knapp's Pittsburg Battery. At close of war returned to his trade; attended night school in Pittsburg, where he prepared himself for college which he attended in Meadville, Pa., after which he read law with the firm of Derickson & Brawley of that city. On account of failing health as the result of service in the war and hard study, was advised by his physician to seek a mild climate, which resulted in his locating in Tucson, Arizona, his present home, in 1871, where he resumed the practice of the law with well merited success. Mr. Hughes served two terms as District Attorney, two terms as Probate Judge and ex-officio Superintendent of Public Schools of Pima County, and was appointed Attorney General in 1875, vice General J. E. McCaffry, resigned. He has also served as member of the School Board and of the City Council, and during the last four years has been U. S. Commissioner. In 1877 Mr. Hughes established the Weekly Star and in 1880 the Daily - giving up a lucrative law practice for that of journalism. The Star is pronounced on every public question and the force and individuality of its editor leaves no room for doubt where he stands on all questions of public concern. The Star is admitted to be a strong factor in moulding public sentiment. Mr. Hughes is ably assisted by his most talented and noble wife, Mrs. E. J. Hughes, who is known as the mother of the public schools in Arizona, as she opened the first public school for girls in the Territory in 1872. She is now the Territorial President of the Women's Christian Temperance Union and contributing to the press on the subjects in which this band of Christian workers are engaged.

George J. Roskuge

Was born near the town of Helston, County of Cornwall, England, on the 10th day of April, 1845. In October, 1870, he emigrated to the United States, going to Denver, Colorado, and on the 26th of May 1872, he came to Arizona, was engaged on the surveying of public lands until July, 1874, when he accepted the position of chief draughtsman in the United States Surveyor General's office in Tucson; resigning in 1880, he entered into business as a surveyor, was appointed United States land and mineral surveyor for the district of Arizona, and city surveyor of Tucson. In July, 1881, was appointed superintendent of irrigation ditches for the Papago Indian Reservation. In September, 1881, was appointed a member of the Board of Trustees School District No. 1. In November, 1882, was elected on the Democratic ticket County Surveyor of Pima County, and has been re-elected at each election since. On the 11th of June, 1887, was appointed a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Arizona, resigning when the administration went out. In March, 1888, was elected Vice-President and in January, 1889, President of the Tucson Building and Loan Association. Mr. Roskruge is a prominent member of the Masonic Fraternity. He was made a Master Mason in June, 1870, in True and Faithful Lodge No. 318, Helston, Cornwall, England, demitted in 1881, and became a charter member of Tucson Lodge No. 4. jurisdiction of Arizona; served three terms as Master; is a Past High Priest of Tucson Chapter No. 3, R. A. M., and Past Eminent Commander of Arizona Commandery No. 1. Knights Templar. At the formation of the Grand Lodge of Arizona in 1882, was elected Grand Secretary) serving as such until 1888, when he was elected Deputy Grand Master, and in 1889, was elected Grand Master; he is also a Deputy Inspector-General of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and is an Honorary member of the Masonic Veteran Association of the Pacific Coast.

Harding & Harding, Hardware, 205 Congress St.

The history of the commercial interests of the city of Tucson has produced few examples of success so marked and substantial as that of the business of Messrs. Harding and Harding dealers in general hardware and merchandise.

Among the establishments of the kind in the city it ranks with the best, and has taken a position and achieved a success which would be surprising but for the known ability of its management. This firm began business in March 1890, and the success which it is meeting with is a criterion by which one may judge of the capabilities of the enterprising firm, which consists of M. Harding and J. S. Harding. Their store is large and roomy and they carry a full line of goods, Hardware, Tin and Sheet Iron, stoves, etc.; and, in connection therewith, they run a manufactory of tin and galvanized Ironware. First-class workmen are employed in the shops, which are located at 430 Congress street. The main store is more centrally located at 205 Congress street. This enterprising firm also carries a full line of Gas Fixtures, Plain and Fancy Queensware, Stoves, Cutlery, etc. Their business ability, as thus far shown, is bound to bring to them a patronage which will compel enlargement of facilities in the near future.

Chas. F. Hoff, Manufacturers' Agent, Etc.

In every community, business or profession are to be found men about whose standing and character there is no kind of doubt, whose record is untarnished, whose business is great in extent and stable in character, and who are generally conceded to be the representatives of the business or profession in which they are engaged.

Such is the acknowledged position of Mr. Chas. F. Hoff, whose agency ranks high in his line of business. "Hoff of Tucson," as he is familiarly known, is a native of Yorktown, Texas. He has been in Tucson for the past seven years. His integrity, ability and business experience have gained for him an immense and ever increasing patronage. He makes a specialty of handling the famous Aermotor Windmill. This is the latest improved mill, and represents the highest attainment of mechanical skill. It shows an increase of 35 per cent, in power, and is just the thing for irrigating purposes. The wheel is entirely of steel, stands great centrifugal strain, is not affected by the Arizona sun, rains, or storms, and, when once up, will lust almost a lifetime. The patent tilting tower brings the wheel down to the ground for oiling, so that one need not take any chances of breaking his neck climbing to the top during severe cold or intense heat. It regulates itself automatically, so as to present a diminishing surface to a storm. A 12 foot Aermotor, at an elevation of 25 feet, in a wind of 12 miles per hour, will pump 2,000 gallons of water per hour or cover one acre of land one inch deep every eleven hours, or, say, two acres per day and night. The aermotor is guaranteed to out-do and out-last, any mill manufactured.

Mr. Hoff is also the agent for the celebrated Hall's Safe & Lock Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio, and has a full stock on hand, both new and second hand. He does a brokerage business in all kinds of merchandise and is a general manufacturers' agent. Mr. Hoff is perfectly reliable in every respect, and his house is a desirable one with which to establish pleasant and profitable business relations. He is fully entitled to the prosperity that has attended his honorable career.

A. V. Grossetta & Co., Dealers in Groceries, Provisions, Butter, Fruits, Eggs and all kinds of Produce.

The term Grocer was formerly used to signify a merchant who sold the staples, coffee, sugar, tea, etc., in gross, but with the progress in trade the business of the grocer became more comprehensive, and his stock was enlarged, including many articles carried by houses, or branches, as specialties. The above establishment, - that of A. V. Grossetta & Co. - takes a leading place in that line, and the individual members of the firm are A. V. Grossetta and L. G. Radulovich, both gentlemen who understand fully the business in which they are engaged. They deal in general groceries and provisions and carry on a general merchandise trade also, keeping on hand the finest ranch butter and eggs to be found in the market, all fresh and the cheapest to be had in the city.

They make a specialty of dealing in all kinds of California fruits. They carry a very large stock of goods in their stores, which are located opposite the Southern Pacific Railway depot. Goods are delivered by them to any part of the city free of charge.

They have a large trade and enjoy the respect of the community, and are known as men of integrity. No firm has done more to deserve success than they. People living in the surrounding country will do well when in the city to give this enterprising house a call.

Hughes, Stevens & Co., Hardware, Stoves and Crockery.

The term Hardware is one of those indefinite, comprehensive words of which it may be said that it almost includes every ware that is hard. Popularly it is understood to embrace all the unclassified goods made of iron and steel, including all the appliances of the mechanical arts, from a file to a mill saw, many articles in use in common life, from a rat trap to a coach spring ; articles as varied in appearance, size and use as can well be conceived. In fact whatever a hardware dealer may choose to sell is hardware.

Perhaps the largest, best known and most popular establishment devoted to this line in Tucson is that owned by Messrs. Hughes, Stevens & Company who are successors to Stevens & Hughes. They deal extensively in every description of hardware and agricultural implements, stoves, tinware, lamps and all kinds of kitchen furniture, refrigerators, crockery, cutlery, glass and Japan ware, moline wagons, buckboards and all kinds of road vehicles, carriages and carts. All kinds of tin, sheet iron and copper work, plumbing, and gasfitting are done promptly and satisfactorily by them.

The "On Time" Mohawk and Charter Oak Stoves are special features in their stock as well as windmills and all kinds of pumping machinery. They also keep mowers, reapers, Oliver chilled plows, barbed wire, and all kinds of gas and water piping.

This establishment has been under the control of the present firm for the last eight years. They carry a stock of about $12.5,000, and their business transactions extend over the northern parts of Mexico, as well as all over the southern part of Arizona. Their business house is located at the corner of Congress and Main streets. Their stores are 100x160 feet and there is a large warehouse in connection. Mr. Hughes has been County Treasurer, and is now Territorial Auditor. Mr. Stt vens was delegate to Congress for two terms Both of these gentlemen are well known throughout the Territory, and are men of great business experience. From their long residence in this country they, of course, know thoroughly what class of goods best meet the demands of the people and what are best adapted for use in this section. Their business has become through the maintenance of strict business principles, one of the chief mercantile establishments in the whole Territory.

H. Buehman, Landscape and Portrait Photographer.

Among the many staunch concerns of the city, whose reputation is not only local, but extends throughout the surrounding country, is that of H. Buehman, the Photographer. Mr. Buehman's business was established in 1874. The premises occupied by him are admirably arranged and equipped. The operating room is furnished with the most improved apparatus and appliances for producing the most perfect work. He possesses superior facilities for executing all orders in the promptest and most satisfactory manner, and his photographic work cannot be excelled for brilliancy of execution, and harmony of effect. He carries the largest stock of mouldings in the Territory ,,and makes picture frames of all kinds, to order; keeps a full line of amateur outfits, oil paintings, engravings, and does developing, retrenching, printing and finishing for the trade. Mr. Buehman is an expert photographer, having been in the business 2.5 years, and is recognized as one of the foremost representatives of the profession in the country. He makes a specialty of Arizona views, and Indian pictures, and is taxed to the utmost to supply his trade in this line.

Mr. Buehman was born in Germany, but has been here 16 years, he is looked upon by the community as a thorough going business man, and a most valuable citizen.

San Xavier Hotel, _. C. Heaton, Proprietor.

Equally important with the leading mercantile and manufacturing enterprises which give reputation to a city for progressive spirit, are all establishments which conduce to the convenience and accommodation of the traveling public.

Among the most prominent of this kind of establishments in the city is the well-known San Xavier Railroad Hotel. The present proprietor of this commodious hotel took charge in April 1889. From that time the house took a very high place in the popular favor, a position which it has ever since maintained and it ranks to-day as one of the leading hotels in the Southwest.

It contains over forty rooms and has accommodation for over one hundred guests. This hotel is patronized by people from all parts, tourists making it their headquarters. A great many people come from abroad and spend the entire winter at this beautifully surrounded hotel. The large dining-room, 75x40 feet, is well lighted and ventilated. The whole structure covers an area of over one acre and has a broad piazza running all around it.

Before Mr. Heaton took charge of the house, he had the management of the well-known eating house at Bowie Station. He is a gentleman well and favorably known throughout the Southwest and is an experienced hotelman, capable, obliging and courteous, and deservedly popular with the traveling public. He is assisted by Mrs. Heaton, who presides over her department with such ease and success in making everything agreeable for the guests, as show that she thoroughly understands the business, and the duties which she has to discharge.

Dr. Geo. Martin, Druggist.

Were it necessary to single out a man, distinguished, at home and abroad, wherever the city of is known, for the possession of all the eminent qualifications to secure success and prominence particular business, the selection would fall on George Martin as entitled to front rank in his profession in the Southwest. The establishment of this most popular gentleman is located on the south side of Congress street, at No. 314, between Church street and Stone avenue.

Mr. Martin keeps a full line of pure drugs and chemicals and also deals in all the finest perfumes and toilet articles. A full line of the various patent medicines he has always on hand. One great advantage he has over other houses is in the fact that prescriptions are compounded in his store both night and day. Therefore the public can be always accommodated.

Mr. Martin has a very large acquaintance all over the Territory and is a gentleman always obliging and courteous and ever ready to administer to the wants of those who are in need.

He is also considered one of the "standbys" of the city and is always one of the first to aid in promoting all public enterprises.

Hon. Harry R. Jeffords.

Was born in Dayton, Ohio, January 25, 1855, but at an early age removed to Natchez, Miss., and for many years made this his home. He received his law education in the Law School of Columbia College in the City of New York. In 1873 he became Cotton Register of Issequena County, Miss., and he had before that time been Cotton Tax Collector of the same county. He was admitted to the bar at Mayersville, Miss., in December of 1874, and at once became the law partner of his father, Judge E. Jeffords. In 1881, when only 26 years old he was elected State Senator from Washington, Issequena and Sharkey counties, Miss., being the youngest man that has been elected to that honorable body since the war of the Rebellion. The senatorial district which he represented was one of the most popular and wealthy in the State, and the great popularity which his talents and genial manners had gained for him, is attested by the fact, that although being an outspoken Republican, Mr. Jeffords polled every vote cast in Issequena county, where he lived. He was a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, selected on account of his well-known ability, for two terms. He continued to practice law in partnership with his father until 1884, when he came to Tucson, Ariz. The following year he formed a partnership with Hon. S. M. Franklin in this city, and since that time has practiced law in connection with him. In 1886 he was elected District Attorney of Pima County, and in May, 1889, was appointed U. S. Attorney for Arizona, which position he holds at present. Mr. Jeffords has met with great success in the practice of his profession, and ranks with the foremost as a lawyer and an eloquent orator.

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